Inv 1, Ch 1 vocabulary

Term Definition
cells building blocks that make up plants and animals
cell theory the idea that all living things are made up of cells
cell membrane holds the cell together and lets substances pass in and out of the cell
cell wall found in plant cells and some protists. a stiff surrounding and gives shape to the cell
chloroplasts organells in some plant and protist cells. They contain chlorophyll, a chemical that enables plants to store solar energy
chromosomes structures inside the nucleus that are made up of genes. Genes carry the code for all the cell's traits and its activities
cytoplasm the watery gel inside a cell.
mitochondria organells in which energy is released from food
nuclear membrane allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus
nucleus controls cell activity
vacuoles spaces in the cytoplasm where food and chemicals are stored.

Inv. 1 Ch 2 vocabulary

Term Definition
Diffusion the tendency of a substance to move from an area of greater concentraion to an area of lesser concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water through a membrane
active transport the cell uses energy to move materials through the cell membrane
photosynthesis the process by which light energy is used to make food
cell respiration the process of using oxygen to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules
fermentation releases energy stored in food, causes your cells to produce a waste product called lactic acid

Chapter 2 Vocab Lessons 1-2

Term Definition
pores small hole or opening in a sponge
stinging cells a cell that contains a poisonous thread
tentacle an armlike part around the mouth of a stinging cell animal
invertebrates an animal that has no backbone

History Of Marine Biology

Term Definition
ALVIN manned deep-ocean research submersible
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
BATHYSPHERE a spherical deep-diving chamber
COLUMBUS rediscovers america in 1492
COOK explored all the oceans and began making scientific observations
ERATOSTHENES calculated earths circumference and invented the first longitude and latitude system
ERIKSON, LEIF discovers Vinland and North America
FORBES, EDWARD Dredged ocean floor and discovered new sea creatures. Father of Marine Biology.
GPS global positioning system
HMS CHALLENGER EXPEDITION discovered mid-atlantic ridge; marinas trench over 4700 new species; gathered biological chemical geological and physical data
LATITUDE parallel lines running from west to east
LONGITUDE intersecting lines that begin at poles
MAGELLAN, FERDINAND 1st person to sail around the world
MAURY, MATTHEW father of physical oceanography, the physical geography of the sea, among 1st to envision world wide patterns for surface winds and currents
PTOLEMY, CLAUDIUS 1st spherical map on flat paper, improved longitude and latitude
PYTHEAS predicted tides by studying the moon, figured out how far north or south one was by using the north star
ROV remotely operated vehicles
SCRIPPS INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY largest and oldest institute centers for ocean and surface research, 1903, California
SCUBA going underwater with air and exploring
SONAR a system of detecting objects under water and measuring depth
SUBMERSIBLES craft designed for exploration
WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTE marine science and engineering in MA study all aspects of marine biology

Biology JC

Question Answer
What is the smallest unit of a living thing that can perform all life processes? A cell
Scientist use microscopes to study the small what? Details of a cell
Plant and animal cells are similar because all cells have what? a. Nucleus b. Cell membrane c. Cytoplasm
What is the control center for the cell's activities? Nucleus
Cells that look similar can have what? different jobs
What is a cell membrane? the cell's outer border, it separates the cell from its environment, and controls what substances move into or out of the cell
What is a cytoplasm? a cytoplasm contains the things that the cell needs to carry out its life processes
What is a tissue? a tissue are groupsof the same type of cell
What is an organ? an organ are groups of tissue that can work together
What is an organism? an organism is the highest level of a cell organization
What is a complete living thing that is made from all of the systems working together? an organism
What is a chloroplast? a chloroplast are special parts in plant cells that trap the sun's energy in order to make food
What are inverebrates? invertebrates are animals that don't have a backbone
What 2nd part of an organism's scientific name? species
Scientist classify an animal a verebrate because it what? has a backbone


Question Answer
Prediction make a forecast
Classify group by simmilar characteristics
Qualitative Observation Use our sense to gather information
Quantitative Observation measure to get information
inference Give an explanation for what you observed
Communication tell others what you know
what do scientists do Make sense of nature
how do you make observations By using your five senses
give an example of observation Mrs. Jones has 2 eyes
Who uses the metric system Scientists
What tool mesures length ruler
what unit is used for length meter
what tool measures mass Triple Beam Balance
What unit is used for mass Gram
what tool measures volume Graduated Cylinder
what tool measures temp Thermometer
What unit is used for length celcius
independent variable what is being changed
dependent variable what effect the change has
control what stays the same

periodic table of elements

Question Answer
H Hydrogen
He Helium
Li Lithium
Be Beryllium
B Boron
C Carbon
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
F Fluorine
Ne Neon
Na Sodium
Mg Magnesium
Al Aluminum
Si Silicon
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Cl Chlorine
Ar Argon
K Potassium
Ca Calcium
Ti Titanium
Zr Zirconium
U Uranium
Pu Plutonium
Cr Chromium
Mo Molybdenum
W Tungsten
Mn Manganese
Fe Iron
Co Cobalt
Ir Iridium
Ni Nickel
Pt Platinum
Cu Copper
Ag Silver
Au Gold
Zn Zinc
Cd cadmium
Hg Mercury
B Boron
Al Aluminum
C Carbon
Si Silicon
Sn Tin
Pb lead
N Nitrogen
P phosphorus
As Arsenic
O Oxygen
S Sulfur
Se Selenium
F Fluorine
Cl Chlorine
Br Bromine
I Iodine
He Helium
Ne Neon
Ar Argon
Kr Krypton
Xe Xenon
Rn Radon

steps to scientific method

Term Definition
scientific method an organized approach to asking questions
research observations information gathering using the five senses for tools
problem a question we need to answer
hypothesis an educated guess
procedure a step by step recipe that tells you how to do something
experiment an organized test of a hypothesis
data the results of experiments
analyze data determan what this data means to you
conclusion the end of an experiment or the solution to the hypothesis
claim we can conclude that the plants that take light grow
inferance a posible explination from an observation
opinion what someone thinks about something

Bragg – Earth, Moon & the Sun Study Guide

Question Answer
What is a rotation? the spinning of a body on its axis
What is a revolution? One complete trip along an orbit. The motion of 1 object travelling around another object in space
What are the seasons? fall, winter, spring, summer
What way is the Earth tilted during the Winter? the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
What way is the Earth tilted during the Summer? the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun
What way is the Earth tilted during the Fall? The Northern Hemisphere is starting to tilt away from the Sun
What way is the Earth tilted during the Spring? The Northern Hemisphere is starting to tilt toward the Sun
What is the equinox? when the Earth is straight on its axis (sun is directly above the equator)
What is the solstice? the point at which the sun is as far north or as far south of the equator as possible
What is spring tide? tides with the largest tidal range and occur during the new and full moons (the sun, Earth & moon are aligned
What are neap tides? tides with the smallest daily tidal range and occur during the 1st and 3rd qtrs. of the moon (the sun, Earth & moon form a 90 degree angle)
What is the moon's orbital tilt degree? 5 degrees
What is a solar eclipse? when the moon comes between the Earth and the sun and the shadow of the moon falls on part of the Earth
What is a lunar eclipse? when the Earth comes between the sun & the moon and the shadow of the Earth falls on the moon
What is Kepler's 1st Law of Motion? it states that orbits are elliptical (meaning planets move in an oval or ellipse instead of a circle)
What is Kepler's 2nd Law of Motion? it states that planets move faster when they are closer to the sun and slower when they are farther from the sun
What is Kepler's 3rd Law of Motion? it explains the relationship between the period of a planet's revolution and its semi-major axis.
What is Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation? the force of gravity depends on the product of the masses of the objects divided by the square of the distance between the objects
What is inertia? an object's resistance in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object?
What is gravity? the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth
Why are gravity and inertia important to the planets' orbit? there isn't any air to cause resistance and slow down the moving moon. Therefore, the moon continues to move, but gravity keeps the Earth in orbit.
What is orbit? the path that an object follows as it travels around another body in space
What are the Earth's axis? the line or tilt that the Earth turns
What is the degree of tilt for Earth? 23.5 degrees

Ecosystem Volabulary Quiz 1

Term Definition
ecology the study of the relationships between living things and their environment (examples: animals depend on plants, animals depend on other animals, all organisms depend on air and water)
ecosystem a community of living and non-living things that interact with each other
environment everything that surrounds an organism and
influences it
germination the process by which seeds swell up and begin to sprout and develop roots
inherited traits characteristics passed on from parent to offspring (examples: eye color or hair color)
learned behavior something you are taught
life cycle the stages plants and animals go through from beginning of development
living organisms that grow, take in nutrients, breathe, reproduce, move and react to things. (ex. animals, including humans, and plants.
non-living anything that does not live and grow. (ex. water, air, clouds, soil and rocks)
offspring the young of a person, animal or plant
organism a living thing
photosynthesis the process of plants using energy from sunlight to make their own food out of carbon dioxide (from the air) and water
sensitivity an organism ability to detect and respond to the world around it