Question Answer
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an alibi is an excuse or plea that one was somewhere other than the scene of a ________ crime
More specific in a legal context and alibi is a ___________ strategy in which a suspect trues to show that they could not have committed the crime because they were somewhere else at the time legal
An alibi witness can be either what two types of people….? Either the suspect or a person the suspect provides as a witness to back their alibi (alibi provider)
An alibi provider is also sometimes referred to as a….? corroborator
An alibi is essentially an eye witness but….? witnesses and alibi providers are treated very differently
In terms of time, how are eyewitnesses different from alibi providers? Eyewitnesses usually realise at the time that a witnessed event is important to notice and recall, but alibi providers often have to recall events of no significance at the time, that could be from months or years ago so is harder to remember
What is the difference between eye witnesses and alibi providers in terms of honest/goof faith effort. There is a presumption that the witness is making a good-faith effort to tell the truth, is being honest but there is no presumption of this with alibi providers
What is the differences between eyewitnesses and alibi providers in terms of errors Eyewitness errors are presumed to be the result of faulty perceptions or memory (police aren;t going to think your guilty or covering anything up) while alibi provider errors are presumer a sign of guilt or cover-up – not an issue with memory.
What is the difference between how evidence is elicited for eyewitnesses versus alibi providers? For eyewitnesses evidence is elicited in a supportive, accepting climate, but for alibi providers evidence is often elicited in a climate of disbelief
What is the difference between eyewitnesses and alibi providers in terms of expectations of corroborating Corroborative evidence is not expected form eyewitnesses (you are not expected to find someone to prive you saw the crime or that the car was green) BUT Corroborative evidence is expected from alibi providers
7 out of 28 DNA exoneration cases (25%) had ______ alibis or __ alibi a a leading factor. weak, no
A "week alibi" appears to be provided by someone who might be m_________ to lie such as someone who is _________ to the suspect or lovers, but it could actually be the case that the alibi is true motivated, relative.
In a study they found that a person with a "weak alibi" was considered in the same category as someone with…..? no alibi at all
So 25% of DNA exonerations to date involve an alibi that is not believed
There are three types of alibi's. What are these? True Alibi and False Alibi
Which type of alibi is this? " Where an alibi provider gives an inaccurate account of his or her whereabouts at the time of the crime False Alibi
Which type of alibi is this? "Where an innocent alibi provider gives an accurate account of his or her whereabouts at the time of a crime, such as being in a PSYC 325 lecture" True Alibi
There are two types of false alibi. What are they? Fabricated (made-up, deliberately false) and Mistaken alibi
People give fabricated alibis either because they feel guilty about dobbing someone in or because they are unwilling to reveal the truth for some other reason. A guy might make up an alibi because he was actually having an affair at the time..
A mistaken alibi is given initially as fact because the innocent alibi-provider believes it to be _____, but later it turns out to be f______. Sometimes we just get it wrong, remember it wrong. I though I was working xmas day between 6-9pm but i wasn't. true, false.
Some researchers realised that no one knows anything about alibis and so they came up with a model for…? studying alibis
This model for studying alibis had two domains which were…? Generation domain and Believability Domain
Evaluation Phase and Ultimate Evaluation Phase ar ein which domain? Believability Domain
What two phases are in Generation Domain? Story phase and Validation phase
Story phase in generation domain is where alibi provider gives a verbal account fo their wh_____ at the time of the crime. Alibis have a unique time-___ requirement-to be valid, they must speak to both t___ of crime and s____ that AP was occupying whereabouts, space, time, space
Lots of things can impact on how easily you can come up with an alibi such as ? Demographic variables, Delay, Time period, Memory
Demographic variables impact how easily you can come up with an alibi. What are the examples of this? Being employed 5 days a week versus unemployed (so you automatically know you were at work for 5 days between 9 and 5), Marital status (you know you would have been with wife), students know they would have been at a lecture
Delay impacts how easily you can come up with an alibi. Explain why Knowing what you were doing two years ago can be hard, unless something significant happened that day. So big delays make it a lot harder to say what you were doing.
Time period impact how easily you can come up with an alibi. What are the examples of this? Really hard to account for longtime periods. Police said that Mark Lundy could have driven from Wellington to Palmy North between 5.30 and 8.30. Having an alibi for being in Wellington at this time was not good enough, police wanted alibi 4 shorter period
Memory impact how easily you can come up with an alibi. What are the examples of this? Write these out Episodic (memory of specific episodes – what happend when bank got robbed) and Autobiographical memories (episodes recollected from persons life) and Temporal tags and dating memories and schemas
Research suggests that the more you encode something, the more likely you are able to d__ it. If you car broke down and it was snowing then you are more likely to remember that it was W____. The more you can remember, the easier it is to think of the date date, winter
Memory schemas are generalised accounts of our common events that are usually god enough for us to know our past. However there are things called m_____ and m_____ departures which influence the accuracy of our memory minor and major
Minor departures from how things usually go are often f________ – if you walk to uni certain side of road everyday you might forget that one that day you actually had to walk on other side because of road being closed. Forgotten
Major departures are re________ due to the memory incon_____ effect. If there was a big accident that caused you to have to walk differently then you are more or less? likely to remember remember, inconsistency, more
Validation phase of generational domain is when you are expected to come up with some sort of ________. It involves corroboration of the story through the generation of alibi evidence Proof/evidence
What are the two types of evidence? They both start with P Physical and Person evidence
There is motivated familiar other (family members) and non-motivated strangers (taxi drivers) and non-motivate familiar other. What is said about each one of these? Motivated familiar others more motivated to lie & less likely to make mistake-misidentify. Non-motivated strangers less likely to lie but more likely to misidentify & nonmotivated familiar others less likely to make mistake & less likely to misidentify.
Other concerns with person evidence is that people might count on alibi from parent or friend but they might not actually be able to remember that you were with them ….
Study on memories of Challenger space shuttle disaster showed that even when significant, crazy events occur, its hard to remember where you were and what you were doing. Results showed that…? participants tried to ______________ their own memories, people they claimed being with remembered being somewhere else. Shows how hard it is to remember your wherabouts for crazy and mundane events.
There are two types of physical evidence – physical evidence that is easy to f______________ (movie tickets – not good evidence) and physical evidence that is difficult to fabricate (CCTV footage-better evidence) fabricate, fabricate
Sometimes there is just no physical evidence available (if they are asleep by themselves). ….
Go over turke and burkes (2003) study
So in Believability Domain there is evaluation phase where the truthfulness of the alibi is evaluated by anyone who may come into contact with it (police, jurors). They came up with a taxonomy for alibi strength.What does taxonomy mean? Write out taxonomy Set of rules
In evaluating study, subjects shown crime scenario and rated alibi evidence of each combination of each physical and person evidence. What did they find? Look them up and write them out
The ultimate evidence phase is when a definitive determination is made as to whether the accused actually committed the crime. read this and write it out

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