Autism 1

Question Answer
What did Leo Kanner and Hans Aperger do? coined the term Autism
Eugen Bleuler is thought to be first person to describe autism as he was describing basic disturbances in ____________. He said that it is the narrowing of relationships and ______ like schizophrenia. social
__% of autistic kids have below normal IQ 75%
50% of autistic kids have __ ___________ no language
With the old figure being 2-4 per 10,000 to now being 2-6 per 1,000, what does this show? That the rate of autistic kids is growing 10% per year.
Why do we think the figures of autistic kids are increasing? Could be due to recording it more or actual increase in incidence but probably just due to recording it more, people being more aware of it and only a small amount due to incidence
What ages is autism typically diagnosed between? 2 and 5
What two things normally cause parents to notice something is not quite right with their baby/child and cause them to seek evaluation? language delay and lack of appropriate social development
Some children have a period of __________ development and then start getting ________ symptoms and therefore start to lose….? normal, autism, lose some earlier acquired skills such as early words or social smiling
Effects of autism can range from _____ to severe which is why autism is considered as what type of disorder? mild, severe, spectrum disorder
On this autism spectrum there are two other disorders what are they called and where are they on the spectrum? PDD-NOS (Persuasive Developmental Disorder – Not otherwise specified) which is on less extreme end and Aspergers syndrome which is at the high extreme end
Which disorder on the spectrum is this? "often depicted as having high IQ., good language, but lacking in social skills" Aspergers Syndrome
Which disorder on the spectrum is this? "cast children who exhibit a certain number and severity of autistic traits" PDD-NOS
Which disorder on the spectrum is this? "often examiner doesn't know where to place child or wants to protect parents and child from stigma of an autistic diagnosis" PDD-NOS
People on the autistic spectrum qualitative impairments in what three things? (these are the triad of symptoms) Social interaction, communication, imagination
What qualitative impairment from the triad of symptoms is this an example of? "someone can be highly social but engage in conversation for too long, dont pick up on normal social cues that person doesn't want to talk any longer" Social interaction
What needs to be present for a diagnosis of autism? All of the three tirad features/symptoms: socialization, imagination and communication
Is autistic children's pretend play rich or not rich and what triad feature does this relate to? Not rich, imagination.
Autistic kids will communicate but what is their communication like? A parrot where they repeat what you say "are you going", and they respond "are you going?"
How do autistic kids commonly talk to someone? They talk at you rather than to you
When autistic kids play with others it is different to the norms. How so? They dont play with others, they make no eye contact
What are these? Restricted interests, desire for sameness, islets of abilities, excellent rote memory, preoccupation with parts Non-triad features of autism
Some autistic kids are really good on some intelligence tasks but not on others – __________ interests restricted
What are Savant Abilities? Exceptional skills most common in maths, music, artist, rope memory
_ out of 10 autistic kids have savant abilities 1
People with autism often have a _______ IQ profile. They excel on some IQ tasks (block design-making target pattern with cubes) but fail on others (picture arrangement-putting pictures in a sequential order) Spiky IQ profile
So deficits at behavioural level are etholalic (copies words like a parrit), displays indifference, wont play with others, no eye contact, lack of creative play, talk incessantly on one topic. But what are their strengths at a behavioural level? They can do somethings very well, very quickly on tasks (apart from social understanding tasks) such as tuning a piano
What degree of autism is at the sever end? Kanners
What is this an example of "patient memorised Decline and Fall of Roman Empire and when re-read recognised that line on third page had been omitted. Savant abilities
Which end of the autism spectrum are people easier to diagnose? Kanners end – the sever end
The presentation of autism become more varied the more….? you move from sever to light on the autism spectrum (more different shapes)
Which end of the spectrum has the greatest amount and greatest variation? The light end – The HFA/AS (High-functioning-Asperger)
Which end of the autism has the least amount and the least variation? The severe end – Kanners
Which disorder was used to describe the middle of the autism spectrum? PDD-NOS (Persuasive Developmental Disorder – not otherwise specified)
Study the table that shows differences between infants with autism and infants without autism in their communication, social relationships and exploration of environment
Autism is more common in males or females? and fixes marriages how? Males, because when male is diagnosed this makes wife feel empathy and understand his behaviour
Mainly males or females? inherit autism males
The cause of autism could be biological or environmental. We dont know for sure. There is also an issue with ________ direction. causal
bad parenting (environment) does impair ToM but this doesn't mean that….? The child is autistic
What is the ratio for how common autism is in male:female? male: female: 3-4:1
Autism is __ times more common in siblings of autistic person than in general population 50
Incidence of autism is higher in ________ twins than _____ twins where researcher found a ___% heritability rate (higher than any other multi-factorial psychiatric disorder) 90
Even when one twin doesn't have autism, this twin still has difficulty what? language and social impairments persisting into adulthood
What could have caused the one twin who does have autism to get autism? Environmental conditions such as a more difficult delivery with less oxygen so could have impaired brain
People now suggest that autism is caused by the way the brain communicates because of…. All of the difference brain areas thought to be involved (cerebellum, limbic system, amygdala, hippocampus.
Babies with low birth weight and enlarged _________ are at risk of autism why is this? Enlarged ventricles means that the gaps between brain areas are larger and thus brain areas are smaller
What does CHAT stand for? Checklist for Autism Toddlers
The CHAT includes three key indicators/markers that make autism more likely. What are they? Protodeclarative pointing, pretend play, gaze monitoring
Study tested 18 month old on the 3 key markers of autism. They found that 12 out of 16,000 failed all three markers and found that at 3,5 years old? 22 children failed pretend play or pretend play and/or pointing later 15 were diagnosed with…? 10 out of this 12 (83%) were diagnosed with autism, language delay (non autisctic
There was a follow up CHAT study at 7 years old. Results? 19 children identified as autistic by CHAT at 18 months and 50 at 7 years old so 38% identified as Autistic by CHAT
CHAT picked up on some children's autistm at 18 months but not others because…? these other children must have started developing it later on
What are the two main theories for children are autistic? 1. ToM impairment 2. Central Coherence Deficit
How do autistic kids do on false belief task compared to downs and normal kids? Much worse. But did good on control/memory questions (where did Sam put cheese and where is the cheese now)
Autistic children have difficulty understanding that seeing leads to knowing. Describe study that looks at this Showed kids doll who looks in the box and doll who just lifts the box up. Autistic kids compared to kids with low IQ did worse on this ToM
Children with autism are not worse on ALL ToM tasks relative to low IQ children BUT…? they tend to be worse on many ToM so general performance is worse
How well do triad impairments account for autism in relation to ToM? Pretty well. You communication might be odd, your pretend play is less rich and you have less understanding when someone pretends glasses are a plane and therefore because they dont understand it they dont bother doing it themselves.
How well do the non-triad features account for autism in relation to ToM? Kind of well. If you dont understand the social world, maybe this is why they retreat to their own world cos it is safe and you are not goin to get in trouble & more likely to focus on certain things (trains) but savant abilities are hard to account for
How do we account for the 20% of autistic kids who pass the false belief task? This is not a problem because theses kids who pass the unexpected transfer task still fail harder (second-order) ToM tasks even when their language skill is at a level that should allow them to pass.
You can also not account for that small amount of autistic kids who do pass ToM because these kids tend to be unusually conscious and logical, like some kind of "mental arithmetic" may reflect a 'hacking out' strategy rathe than real understanding.
What happened in the study where researcher TAUGHT (tried to give teach understanding about others) how to pass false belief tasks. They wanted to see if being taught it would have positive effect on communication with others. They were tested on their conversational ability and use of mental state terms in speech. Found it made no difference in everyday communications
What was the results of the study where autistic kids were taught how to reason about mental states/how to pass the false belief task. It made no difference to their communication – they did not use the knowledge they were taught. Shows that autistic kids never gain a real understanding of mental states as reflected in their failure to apply taught knowledge to their everyday encounters
What also supports that Autistic kids have lack in ToM is their ____ _______ deficits non-verbal
Read slide on autistic kids non-verbal deficits that can account for lack in ToM ….So says that non verbal features are not explained in ToM
If guy has a hat the autistic kids dont look between both the guy and the hat. What does this show they are lacking? Social referencing (important aspect of ToM)
So the ToM cannot explain what? And therefore what other hypothesis has been made? Cant explain all of the features of autism such as the non-triad features and cannot explain all people with autism such as the talented minority. Therefore the central coherence hypothesis has been made
What does the central coherence theory propose? That people with autism have difficulty pulling bits of information together (an imbalance in autism in integrating information at different levels)
Do autistic kids have this? have a tendency to draw together diverse information to construct higher-level meaning – central coherence No, normal developing people have this
When normal people hear a story we only remember the _____ of it, not every last detail. (central coherence) gist
When someone asks us "can you please pass me my pair of shoes?" you recognise that they mean pair, not pear because you process the word in the context of the whole sentence. What is this an example of? Central coherence
In _____________ development we have a tendency to draw together diverse information to construct higher-level meaning – c___________ _______________ normal, central coherence
Autistic peoples ToM difficulties are said to be a deficit or a style? Why? Deficit, because it leads to poorer performance in all situations
Autistic central coherence difficulties are said to be a deficit or a style? A style because they lead to advantages in some situations and deficits in others
What is the difference between a style and a deficit? A deficit leads to poorer performance in all situations whereas a style leads to advantages in some situations and deficits in others.
An autistic kids general processing difficulties are a style or deficit? Style
Describe the Titchener illusion task. and in relation to autistic kids The Titchener illusion task is a central coherence task where the circle with smaller circles around it look larger. Autism kids dont succumb to this illusions because they process the circles individually – automatically dissemble central circles.
How do normal developing people respond to the Titchener task? They see central circles in the context of surrounding circles so see the circle with smaller circles surrounding it as bigger.
Is autistic kids response to the Titchener illusion task a positive thing or not? Why? Yes its a positive thing because they dont succumb to this illusion like we do
What type of Titchener task removes the differences between autistic peoples and normal peoples performance? 3D condition of the Titchener task
What is the Embedded figures test? And how do normal and autistic people perform and why? Have to find triangels in pram picture. Autistic kids do better than normal because they have weak central coherence so are preoccupied with parts of objects while normal people draw things into meaningful wholes
Describe the Wechsler Block Design task and how autistic people and normal people perform and why To make block shape with flat card s quickly as can. Easier for autistic kids because they have already pre-segmented shape but easier for us if shape is already presegmented but if alreayd pre-segmented for ausistics then makes no difference
Autistics do superior performance to controls when the design is…? And controls do better when…? and why? not pre-segmented, when it is pre-segmented. Because autistic kids have already pre-segmented the shape themselves (due to weaker coherence) so theres no benefit for them
Can autistic kids do Embedded tasks better or not? Yes, better because of their weak central coherence which means they are pre-occupied with parts of objects so find the triangles faster
So having a weak central coherence (like autistic kids do) creates advantages in tasks where processing of ________ is required rather than processing of wholes. And creates disadvantages where subject needs to consider the _______ and not the parts. parts, whole
The Disambiguation of homographs task is where you need to consider the whole or the part? Describe it. How does this relate to Autistic people The whole. e.g. he had a pink bow versus he made a deep bow – where bow can only be disambiguated by considering the sentence as a whole. Autistics cant do this because of their weak central coherence
Autistic kids are disadvantaged in the Disambiguation of homographs task because…? The cant process the whole sentence only parts of it so cant disambiguate the word 'bow' because of their weal central cogerence
So far what are the advantages of having a weak central coherence (for autistics) (what tasks)? Advantaged in the Titchener illusion task and the Embedded figure task and the Wischler Block Design task expect when block is already pre-segmented
How do autistic people respond to these two sentences and what is the name of this task? "he had a pink bow" and "he made a deep bow" Autistic people focus on individual word 'bow' and use the most frequent pronunciation for it
With the disambiguation of homographs task who did they compare autistic children with? Normal and Dyslexic. Autistic only got 5-7 out of 10 correct while normal and dyslexic kids got 7-9 out of correct
What happens if you present patterned sounds verus random sounds to autistics verus controls? Controls recall pattern sounds better than random and autistic children have no difference ein their recall ability for both patterned and random because they dont see the pattern, only the individual sounds anyway. So pattern has no benefit to them
Which hypothesis (ToM or Central Coherence) accounts well for the triad impairments? ToM
Which hypothesis (ToM or Central Coherence) accounts well for the non-triad features? Central Coherence
Which hypothesis (ToM or Central Coherence) accounts well for the spiky IQ excel on some tasks and not others)? Central Coherence. e.g the Wichsler block design because they had already pre-segmented the block themselves so much quick and less errors. <–so this is a processing STYLE
Can we use either ToM or Central Coherence theory by themselves as being sufficient? NO – neither theory is sufficient on their own
What account for this weak central coherence in autism? No one really knows, But possibly due to brain chemistry or brain structure, lack in brain connection
We should see some overlap in characteristics between family members of someone with autism for it to have a ________ link genetic
What did they find with the study that compared relatives of children with autism with relatives of children with Downs? That relatives of children with autism had higher rates of social and communication deficits and stereotyped behaviours – so characteristics similar to the child with autism
Study found that among families with autistic child ___% have a first degree relative with major depressive disorder and ___% with a social phobia that in most cases ONSET BEFORE birth of autistic child which means that….? 64%, 39%, means that the causal direction is not that the child is causing this major depression or social phobia
Study looked at families of autistic children and found that 64% have first degree relatives with _____ ______ _______, 39% with ______ _____. Control families were families with child with ______ ______ and only 5% have ____ ____ and only 19% had _______ major depression disorder social phobia, tuberous sclerosis, social phobia, depression
What do these characteristics relate to? "aloof, shy, few friendships, odd conversations, over-or-under-informative" The personality characteristics or parents and siblings of children with autism, mainly males
What subject has more incidence of students with autism taking them? Math, Engineering and Physics.
Subjects of English and French have more incidence in what disorder? Manic Depression
What occupation do father of autistic kids most commonly have? and what 4 things did they compare these father with? Engineering, with Tuberous Sclerosis, Lang (?), Normal and Downs
What occupation do mothers of autistic kids most commonly have? There are no difference in any occupations so only father are difference
What do these figures relate to? 11.5 and 9.7? Maternal and paternal grandfathers of autistic kids who have engineering occupations
What occupations do grandmothers of autism kids have most commonly? There are one that they have more commonly. So only fathers and grandfathers show significant incidence in engineering.
What can we conclude by the fact that autistics commonly study math, engineering and physics and that only fathers and grandfathers of autistic kids are significantly more common to have occupations in engineering than mothers and grandmothers? That autism genes must be being inherited along the male gene line.
What about Central Coherence in particular COGNITIVE MEASURES in relatives of children with autism compared to relative of children with _______ and normal dyslexia, Autistic relatives and Dyslexia relatives both perform about the same on cognitive measures. except for reading.
What do we find if we compare relatives of autistic children with relatives of Dyslexia children on their performance of the Wichsler Block Design task? fathers of autistic children are faster at the Wechsler block design task as well!
What do we find if we compare relatives of autistic children with relatives of Dyslexia children and normal children on their performance of the Embedded Figures task? Fathers of autistic children are faster
How do fathers of autistics kids compared to relatives of dyslexia and normal kids do on the Titchener Illusion task? Fathers do better – make fewer errors which means they are not succumbing to the illusion
SO fathers of autistic kids are faster on Wichsler Block Design task and Embedded figure task as well! What does this suggest? Suggests that fathers also have a weaker central coherence
Conclusion: there is broader ______ of autism among relatives of kids with autism. In particular the _____ even though they're not diagnosed with autism, they have similar characteristics (cognitive style) and occupation types (behaviours) PHENOTYPE, fathers,

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