Bragg – Earth, Moon & the Sun Study Guide

Question Answer
What is a rotation? the spinning of a body on its axis
What is a revolution? One complete trip along an orbit. The motion of 1 object travelling around another object in space
What are the seasons? fall, winter, spring, summer
What way is the Earth tilted during the Winter? the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
What way is the Earth tilted during the Summer? the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun
What way is the Earth tilted during the Fall? The Northern Hemisphere is starting to tilt away from the Sun
What way is the Earth tilted during the Spring? The Northern Hemisphere is starting to tilt toward the Sun
What is the equinox? when the Earth is straight on its axis (sun is directly above the equator)
What is the solstice? the point at which the sun is as far north or as far south of the equator as possible
What is spring tide? tides with the largest tidal range and occur during the new and full moons (the sun, Earth & moon are aligned
What are neap tides? tides with the smallest daily tidal range and occur during the 1st and 3rd qtrs. of the moon (the sun, Earth & moon form a 90 degree angle)
What is the moon's orbital tilt degree? 5 degrees
What is a solar eclipse? when the moon comes between the Earth and the sun and the shadow of the moon falls on part of the Earth
What is a lunar eclipse? when the Earth comes between the sun & the moon and the shadow of the Earth falls on the moon
What is Kepler's 1st Law of Motion? it states that orbits are elliptical (meaning planets move in an oval or ellipse instead of a circle)
What is Kepler's 2nd Law of Motion? it states that planets move faster when they are closer to the sun and slower when they are farther from the sun
What is Kepler's 3rd Law of Motion? it explains the relationship between the period of a planet's revolution and its semi-major axis.
What is Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation? the force of gravity depends on the product of the masses of the objects divided by the square of the distance between the objects
What is inertia? an object's resistance in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object?
What is gravity? the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth
Why are gravity and inertia important to the planets' orbit? there isn't any air to cause resistance and slow down the moving moon. Therefore, the moon continues to move, but gravity keeps the Earth in orbit.
What is orbit? the path that an object follows as it travels around another body in space
What are the Earth's axis? the line or tilt that the Earth turns
What is the degree of tilt for Earth? 23.5 degrees

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