CH 3 Study Guide for Environmental Science

Question Answer
Define weather The state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, ect.
What is the temperature of the earth’s inner core? Between 4000-5000 degrees Celsius
How did the Himalaya Mountains form? When tectonic plates collide, the crust becomes thicker and eventually forms mountains.
Give examples of landforms developed by wind and water erosion. Waves from ocean storms can erode coastlines and give rise to many landforms
Give examples of landforms developed by wind and water erosion. Rivers carve deep gorges into the landscape
Give examples of landforms developed by wind and water erosion. Beaches and deserts
Where are the most geologically active regions on the surface of the Earth Boundaries between tectonic plates
What produces atmospheric oxygen? Plants
Where is the ozone layer? It is located in the Stratosphere
What is the function of the ozone layer? Its function is to absorb UV radiation and it reduces the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth
What is the ozone layer made up of? It is made up of three oxygen atoms
Describe the Richter Scale Measures the energy and level of an earthquake; uses a scale of (1 – 10)
Define magma. Melted rock that a volcano is made from
Where is magma on the Earth? Located near tectonic plate boundaries where plates are colliding or separating from one another. Most located near Pacific Ocean
Crust Layer of the Earth that is the thinnest and is above the mantle
Mantle layer of medium density rock between the Earth’s crust and core
Core central part of the Earth below the mantle and is composed of the densest elements
Lithosphere solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.It is divided into huge pieces called tectonic plates
Asthenosphere solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere. Made of mantle rock that flows slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it.
Mesosphere Region between the asthenosphere and the outer core.
Inner Core The inner is a dense, solid inner core made of mostly iron and nickel
Outer core A dense liquid layer
Troposphere lowest layer of the atmosphere where temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases. Layer that weather conditions exist.
Stratosphere layer that lies immediately above the troposphere (Greenhouse Effect)
ozone in the stratosphere absorbs the sun’s UV energy and warms the air and is the layer where almost all ozone is concentrated
Mesosphere layer above stratosphere, coldest layer with temperatures measured as low as -93 degrees Celsius.
Thermosphere located farthest from the surface, This is where nitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation, Very thin air
As you move up the atmosphere what happens to density, temperature and pressure? The higher you go, the less dense it gets and pressure increases, As hot air rises-cool air then sinks.
convection hot air rising, cooling, and then falling; temperature variations can result in the transfer of energy as heat
Radiation energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, : heat from a fire
Conduction transfer of energy as heat through a material; touching a hot plate
Why do you weigh more at sea level than at the top of the Himalayas? atmospheric pressure decreases as you climb, which in turn decreases weight to the air around your body.
What is the greenhouse effect? warming of the surface of eart, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation.
Why is the greenhouse effect necessary for life of Earth? Without this,Earth would be too cold for life to exist.
Hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the surface. It includes oceans, lakes, rivers, wetlands, polar ice caps, soil, rock layers beneath the surface, and clouds.
geosphere Mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth that extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust
Atmosphere mixture of gases that makes up the air we breathe.
Lithosphere solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and rigid upper part of the mantle
Where is most of the fresh water on earth located? in icecaps and glaciers
Compare salinity in fresh water and ocean water Oceans contain salts in the form of sodium chloride in a large amount, but fresh water has the least salt at all
Where are deep currents? Along the ocean floor
What determines which way the surface currents flow in the ocean? The wind and result from global wind patterns
What is the thermocline? Layer about 300 to 700 m deep where the temperature falls rapidly in the ocean
What is an open system? can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings
What is a closed system? cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.
Which system is the earth? Closed – matter; Open – energy
What is the biosphere? Part of Earth where life exists, Located near earth’s surface because most of the sunlight is available near the surface
What process creates surface currents? Global wind patterns
How do scientists determine what the interior of the Earth looks like? Seismic waves
What is erosion? process in which the materials of the Earth’s surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported form one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice or gravity.
Describe earthquakes Generate when tectonic plates may separate, collide, or slip past one another.
Earthquakes Magnitude measure of the energy of an earthquake. Measured by richter scale
How do volcanic eruptions affect the climate? clouds of the volcanic ash and sulfer rich gases reduce the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface, can cause a drop in temperature
What is the composition of the atmosphere? Nitrogen makes up 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere. Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere and is produced by plants. Also contains types of tiny, solid particles or atmospheric dust.
What are greenhouse gases? water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
What do greenhouse gases do? radiate heat and can damamge the ozone layer
Compare oceans and land in terms of heat absorption and release. The ocean absorbs and releases heat slower than land. This acts as a temperature regulator.
What are tributaries? A river that flows into larger rivers
Evaporation is the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
Condensation the change of state from a gas to a liquid
Precipitation any form of water that falls to the Earth’s surface form the clouds, and includes rain, snow, sleet, and hail
What holds the atmosphere in place? Gravity
What is an aquifer? A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater
What is a recharge zone? Recharge zone is where the water is moving downward through the surface to become groundwater
convergent when plates collide or hit each other (mountains)
Transform when plates slip by one another (earthquakes)
Divergent when plates pull apart (volcanoes)
Water Cycle Evaporation -> Condensation -> Percipitation then it starts over again.

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