Chapter 7A

Term Definition
Memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Encoding the processing of information into the memory system
Storage the retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory Memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short-Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Spacing Effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial Position Effect the tendency to recall the first and last items in a list best
Visual Encoding the encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding the encoding of sounds
Semantic Encoding the encoding of meaning
Imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processin
Mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organization
Chunking organizing the items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Iconic Memory a photographic memory
Echoic Memory a memory of specific sounds for a short time
Long-Term Potentiation an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Amnesia the loss of memory
Implicit Memory retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit Memory memory of facts and experiences that one knows and can "declare"
Hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories
Recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
Recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items preciously learned
Relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming making particular associations in memory; often unconsciously
deja vu the eerie sense of "I have seen this before". Cues from the current situation triggering an earlier experience
Mood-Congruent Memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression banishing anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced or imagined
Working Memory focuses on the actual conscious and active processing of incoming auditory and visual information
Parallel Processing the processing of many aspects simultaneously
Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental information
Effortful Processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information

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