Chapters 11-13

Question Answer
4 Types Of Tissues Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous
Features of Epithelial Tissue Secretion, Absorption, Filtration & Excretion
Basement Membrane: What is it? Composed of? Joins and defines epithelium and connective tissue.
Composed of: Basal Lamina, reticular lamina.
Tight Junction Solid barrier.
Zipper Fastening.
eg. Urine stays within kidney because of tight junction
Gap Junction Gaps between.
Sugars and ions can pass through junction.
Adhesion Junction Do not touch.
Held together by filaments.
Enhances strength of tissue i.e. Skin.
4 Types of Connective Tissue CT Proper, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
CT Proper: Loose Features.. Found in.. Supports epithelium & organs.
Allows organs to expand & protects.
Contain Fibroblasts.
Found: Lungs, arteries & bladder
CT Proper: Dense Types Regular: Tendons & Ligaments
Irregular: Surround joints & organs
Elastic: Large arteries
Cartilage Features Lie in the lacuna, lacks blood supply, lacks nerves
Three Types of Cartilage & Where are they found 1) Hyaline: Found: Nose & ends of long bones. 2) Elastic: Found: Ear. 3) Fibrocartilage: Found: Between backbone vertebrae.
Bone Features Lie in the lacuna, matrix with calcium salts. Protects, supports, mineral storage, blood formation
Two Types of Bones 1) Compact
2) Spongy
Components of Blood & their functions 1) Plasma
2) Formed Elements
– Red BC
Carry oxygen
– White BC
Fight infection
– Platelets
Blood Clotting
Three Types of Muscular Tissue Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
Skeletal: Function, Voluntary or Involuntary, Appearance – Muscles attached to Skeleton
– Voluntary
– Striped & Multinuclear
Smooth: Location, Voluntary or Involuntary, Appearance – Blood vessels & walls of digestive tact
– Involuntary
– Spindle Shaped, Single nuclear
Cardiac: Location, Voluntary or Involuntary, Appearance – Wall of heart
– Involuntary
– Stripped & Single nuclear
Neurons: Location, Function, Appearance – Found: Brain and spinal cord
– Conduct Impulses
– Made up of Cell body, dendrites and axon.
Types of Homeostasis: How they work? Negative Feedback: Body keeps internal environment to a set point by pushing itself in opposite state of environment.
Positive Feedback: Brings body into a greater change into the same direction.
Homeostasis and Body Systems: 4 Types Transport System: Cardiovascular System.
Maintenance System: Respiratory System, Digestive System, Kidneys.
Support System: Integumentary System, Skeletal, Muscular.
Control System: Nervous System.
Local and Systemic Disease Local: In one part of body
Systemic: Throughout entire body
Acute and Chronic Disease Acute: Occurs suddenly, short duration
Chronic: Long term, develops slowly
Three Types of Blood Vessels 1) Arteries & Arterioles.
2) Capillaries.
3) Veins and Venules.
Systemic: Arteries carry _____________ and veins _____________. Opposite is true for ___________ system Systemic: Arteries carry oxygen rich blood and veins carry oxygen poor. Opposite is true for pulmonary system
Arteries carry blood __________ from heart Away
Three Layers of Arteries Inner layer: Endothelium
Middle layer: Thickest layer, contains smooth muscle and elastic tissue. This layer controls blood pressure.
Outer layer: fibrous and loose connective tissue
Capillaries join ___________ to ___________ Join arterioles to venules
Aereriovenous Shuts… Allow blood to skip capillaries
Veins have the same three layers as arteries but… Middle layer is much less thick, allowing more blood to flow through.
Myocardium Major portion of heart, mainly cardiac muscle
Pericardium Membrane that surrounds heart and secretes fluid
Endocardium Membrane made of connective tissue and endothelium that lines inner surface of heart.
Atrioventricular Valves Between atrium and ventricle. Called Tricuspid and Bicuspid
Semilunar Valves Between Ventricle and vessels
Blood must travel __________ the ________ to get from the _______ side to the ______ side of the heart. Blood must travel through the lungs to get from the right side to the left side of the heart.
Path of Blood through the Heart Vena cava, right atrium, Tricuspid valve, right ventricle, semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valves, left ventricle, semilunar valves, aorta, body
Systole & Diastole Systole: Contraction of the Heart
Diastole: Relaxation of the Heart
Heart Sounds: Lup Dup – Lup: Atrioventricular valves closing
– Dup: Semilunar Valves closing
Pulmonary Cucuit Blood from body goes into the right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary arterioles, pulmonary capillaries (blood oxygenated), pulmonary venules, pulmonary veins, left atrium.
Systemic Curcuit Left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, systemic arteries, systemic arterioles, systemic capillaries (blood oxygen poor), systemic venules, vena cava, right atrium.
Plasma Composed of… Water, Plasma Proteins: Albumin, Antibodies and Fibrinogen, Salts, Gases, Nutrients, Nitrogenous Wastes.
Five Types of White Blood Cells Neutrophilis
Features of Red Blood Cells -Made in red bone marrow
-Lack nucleus
-Contain Hemoglobin
-Life span is 120 days
-Heme broken down into bilirubin, which is excreted through digestive and urinary tract.
Features of White Blood Cells – Nucleated
– Lack Hemoglobin
– Able to slip out of capillaries and treat surrounding tissues
Neutrophils Eat bacteria, they are the garbage collectors
Basophils Release histamine, responsible for allergy symptoms
Eosinophils Fight parasitic worms
Lymphocytes Found in lymphoid tissue,
T cells – Fight virus infected cells and tumors
B cells – Introduce antibodies into blood
Monocytes Largest WBC, they leave blood stream and change into mobile macrophages and dendritic cells, which eat and clean viruses, bacteria and infections.
Osmotic Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure O: Makes water move from tissue to blood
H: Makes water move from blood to tissue
Lymphatic System Functions – Contributes to homeostasis
– Returning excess fluid to bloodsteam
– Helps defend body against disease
Lymphatic Organs – Contain: Lymphocytes, B & T
Red Bone Marrow: Blood cell production. Where B cells mature
Thymus Gland: Where T Cells Mature
Spleen: Cleanses blood
Lymph Nodes: Cleanses Lymph
Innate Immunity First barriers, not specific.
Forms of Innate Immunity – Physical and Chemical Barriers
– Inflammation
– Phagocytes and Natural Killer Cells
– Protective Proteins
– Fever
Physical and Chemical Barriers: – Skin and mucous membranes
– Cilia
– Oil glands
– Stomach and Vagina acid
How Inflammatory Reaction Works Mass cells & damaged tissue release hisamine which causes capillaries to dialate increase blood flow. Monocytes from blood cells come into tissue & become Macrophages & dendrites, then they eat. Then produce cytokines, which draw wBC to tissue. Clots
Natural Killer Cells Destroy some virus-infected cells and cancer cells by cell-by-cell contact.
Acquired Immunity – Specific against a virus.
– Take about 5-7 days to become active
– B and T cells
Characteristics of B Cells – Produce antibodies
– Produced and mature in bone marrow
– Recognize antigen and clone itself. Can clone into antibody secreting plasma cells or memory B cells.
Classes of T Cells
Where produced and mature
Produced in bone marrow and mature in thymus
Th Cells (Helper)
-Stimulate Tc Cells and B Cells
Tc Cells (Killer)
-Kill virus and cancers
Memory Cells:
-Provide long-term immunity (B clones)
T reg Cells
why does a fever happen? Body temp increases to kill bacteria and stimulate enzymes to work harder.
Compliment System Group of plasma proteins, puncture hole in bacteria and apoptosis occurs
Phagocytic Cells Neutrophils and Monocytes (Macrophages & Dendrites)
How antibodies work Antibodies bind to antigen and signal immune system. Activating phagocytic cells and call on complement proteins.
How B cells work B Cells have BCR on outside, for specific antigen and becomes activated when binded. To fight it makes many copies of itself, plasma cells and memory B cells. Plasma cells identical to B cell, but releases b cell receptor to outside, antibody.
T Helper Cells Have TCR, cannot recognize antigens unless presented to it. Phagocytic (antigen presenting ) cell have MHC class 2 that presents material to Th Cell. Th recognizes antigen & MHC class 2. Tc activated makes cytokines. Cytokines can stimulate B cells or Tc
Cytotoxic T Cell If body cell infected by virus, MHC class 1 will show viral proteins. Tc is activated will see its specific antigen and MHC class 1 virus molecule. Tc cell now produces perferint and granzymes, they poke holes in cell and cause cell apoptosis.
Antibody made of… Variable region and constant region
Acquired Immunity Activated through directly getting virus or vaccine
Passive Immunity When baby gets antibodies through breast milk from mom

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