Detecting Deception

Question Answer
What are the two types of lies? Self-Oriented and other-Oriented
What type of lie is this? Lies told to protect or enhance another person psychologically or advantage or protect the interests of others. (Saying that wife’s bum doesn’t look big), so you tell lies to make people feel better. Other-oriented
Which type of lie is this? Lies told to protect or enhance the liars psychologically, or to advantage or protect the liars’ interests. These are basically lies to benefit yourself (the dog ate your homework or “I didn’t commit that crime). Self-oriented
What are the three types of emotions associated with lying? Fear, Guilt and 'duping delight'
Cognitive load: Liars need to think of p_____ answers, avoid c_______, tell a lie that is consistent with the interviewer's present and ______ knowledge (what people might find out later), and remember what they have _____ <– so really cognitively t_____ plausible, contradictions, future, said, taxing
Attempted behavioural control is where liars engage in '___________ _____________' to avoid being caught. They try so hard to appear as an _______ person that they end up looking _____/_____. This is likely to lead to…..? impression management, honest, crazy/strange, overcontrol
A researcher did a meta-analysis and found that 4 behaviour are more likel to occur when lying than when telling the truth. What are they? Voice pitch increases slightly (cant hear with ears), speech errors increase a bit because its hard to lie, illustrators (arm movements) decrease slightly and hand/finger movements decrease slightly.
Participants that were trained on Imba et al's nonverbal cues to deceit performed…? wores than controls when asked to detect lies.
Empirical research may send us mixed messages – give an example of this. Emotion increases blinking rate but cognitive load decreases blinking rate so which do liars exhibit?
Most research in verbal cues of deception have examined the use of…? Statement Validity Assessment.
What is CBCA? A special way that people code statements and evaluate outcomes
What is the CBCA based on? The Undeutsch Hypothesis
How many criteria are used in the assessment of using CBCA? 19
Is this CBCA coding and in general Statement Validity Assessment any good at detecting truth? No not much better as only 76% of the time, were people accurately labelled as telling the truth. So 24% are labelled as liars when they are actually telling the truth and 32% get away with telling a lie
CBCA coding may be a failure because other factors tend to influence whether people think someone is lying. What are these three factors? Age, Interviewer style and verbal and social skills
As age increases the CBCA score increase or decrease? What doe this mean? Increases, that older people are perceived as being less likely to lie
As interviewers ask more open ended questions, the CBCA score increases or decrease? increases
If people have better verbal and social skills, the CBCA score increases or decreases? Increases
Polygraphs measure activities such as…. but there is no evidence that we can use this information to judge whether…? increases in sweating of the fingers, blood pressure and respiration. Whether someone is lying or not
What does SVA stands for? Statement Validity Assessment
The Control Question Test (CQT) compares what two things? The polygraph responses to relevant questions with polygraph responses to control questions
There are two main lying tests – Control Question Test and ….? The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT)
The Guilty Knowledge Test examines whether suspects possess _____________ that they do not want to reveal about a crime. knowledge
Only the guilty suspect will recognise the knife used to murder so the guilty person will respond more or less? to the familiar knife because they have the k___________ of it. more, knowledge
A researcher suggested that GKT could have been used in which real life case? The OJ Simpson case
GKT is better than CQT at spotting truth tellers or liars? while CQT is better at spotting truth tellers of liars? Truth tellers, liars
GKT may fail because of limited applicability. Test designer needs to know answer but in real life they dont know the true answers about crimes, cant be something shown in m___ as innocent people cant know answer, guilty suspect needs to know answer but.. they might not e.g. accidentally leaving hoodie at scene and not realising so they dont actually know that a hoodie was left there – dont have guilty knowledge of this, Suspect could have guilty knowledge but deny guilt e.g ?
There are general problems with research in lie detection….for example field research and lab research both have cons and pros…field research has g_____ truth problems, deals with _____ crimes, has higher stakes (prison) whereas lab research has…. no ground truth problems (they know who is guilty because they put them into those groups), has non-serious crimes and generally lower stakes (dont get sent to prison)
The Othello Error occurs when the lie catchers/observer fails to consider that a truthful person who is under s____ may appear to be l_______. stress, lying
___________ tests are least likely to be affected by the Othello error and by the GKT Verbal
Causing a false belief is a successful or unsuccessful d______ attempt without forewarning, to create in another individual a b______ which the communicators knows to be ________ deliberate, belief, untrue
A subject who has a false belief is unlikely to display physiological or non verbal signs of deception – if they have a false belief that they are ___________ innocent
Which of the three techniques (nonverbal, verbal and physiological) could be the most promising of the three techniques? Verbal tests
Targeted Interviewing aims to elicit diagnotist cues to deception rather than just as__ they'l arise. Ex.1s assumption=deception is more demanding than telling truth & solution is? Ex. 2s assumption=liars often prepare themselves for interview & solution? Solution for example 1 is to place suspects under additional cognitive load such as telling story backward or keeping eyecontact. Its hard for guilty people to do this so some non-verbal cues may come out. Solutions to example 2 is….? (2 solutions)
What is the hypothesis with brain scanning? that brain activity when lying could differ from brain activity when telling the truth.
Researchers have found two main brain areas of increased activation when lying relative to when telling the truth. What are they? Prefrontal cortex and Anterior cingulate gyrus
These brain areas may be in_______ a prepotent response (giving true answer) so are going to be activated when you are trying to s_________ something inhibit, suppress
Write out the reasons for caution of using these brain scans ….

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