dr. kelly final on repro & genetics

Question Answer
Function of male reproductive system Purpose of male reproductive system is to provide genetic blueprint for next generation and transmit them to female
Why are male reproductive structures are outside body cavity? Because body temperature is too high for spermatozoa production
cremastic muscle function moves testes closer or away from body
cryptorchidism Testes that don’t descend
Testes Function Function
1. spermatogenesis
2. production of hormones
Sertoli cells aka Nurse cells
Interstitual cells of Leydig function & location location: between seminiferous tubules
Function: produce & secrete male hormones major testosterone
seminiferous tubules join 1 another in a series of tubes that leave testis to ________. Epididymis
Mature sperm functions 1. must be able to reach ovum and carry genetic information
2. device for locomotion (swim upstream)
3. device for penetrating ovum
4. something to carry half of genetic information
Parts & function of Sperm Head: contain chromosomes & acromsomal cap that have enzymes to penetrate ovum
midpiece: mitochondria to produce ATP
tail: locomotion
How much sperm does a man produce in 24 hours? 100,000
What must happen before a sperm can fertilize? capacitation
How long can a sperm live in female reproductive system? 72 hours
Epididymis function 1. Stores sperm and continues with maturation
2. Secretes glycogen for nourishment
Ductus Deferens Function conveys sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct & stay there for up to 42 days
Spermatic Cord function to lower temperature
Seminal vesicles Location & function Location:Behind the urinary bladder & contribute 60% of semen
Function: Sperm undergo 1st step in capacitation & beating flagella
Prostate Gland Location & function Location: Surrounds the proximal urethra
Function: Produces 20-30% of semen & seminalplasmin (antibiotic protein prevents UTI)
Bulbourethral glands location & function Location: At base of penis & each duct enters into the urethra
Function: Secretes alkaline mucus to neutralize urinary acids & lubricate the tip of the penis
erection of the penis is caused by engorgement of columns of erectile tissue with blood
Process of erection 1. Sexual Excitement
2. parasymphathetic response
3. release of NO locally
4. relax vascular smooth muscle
5. fill with blood
6. drainage veins compressed
Process of ejaculation 1. Reproductive ducts & glands contract emptying sat_flash_1s into urethra
2. bladder sphincter constricts
3. rapid series of contractions of the smooth muscle of the penis
Semen 2-5ml/ejaculate with 50-130 million sperm/ml
What considered a male sterile? < 200 million sperm per/ejaculate considered sterile
sat_flash_1s of semen a. liquid – transport
b. nutrients – fructose for fuel
c. chemicals:
– prostaglandins
– relaxin
– alkaline
– antimicrobials
Testosterone is produced in response to _______. HCG which causes testes descent
Hormonal control in males figure 25.6
GnRH in hypothalamus->pituitary gonadatrophins->1. ICSH 2. FSH
ICSH Interstitial cell stimulating hormone that tells cells to make testosterone
FSH tells nurse cells to make ABP to enhance testosterone to bind & inhibin
Inhibin inhibits production of FSH
Female Reproductive Function produce gametes, receive male gametes, provide environment for the fetus, nourish newborn, produce hormones, move offspring out
Ovary Function 1. oogenesis
2. hormone production (estrogen and progesterone)
Women have _____ ovum amount where men have ____ sperm amount. 1. limited
2. unlimited
How do twins occur? when 2 or more ovum are produced in 1 month
Oogensis process 1. primary oocyte at birth & at puberty start process below
2. Meiosis I: polar body & oocyte
3. Meiosis II: 2nd polar body & mature ovum & 1st polar body split into 2
In ovary the oocytes are what type? primary oocytes
primordial follicle most primitive follicles with very thin layer of follicular support cells
primary follice 1st follicular cells become layered
secondary (antral) follicle when gaps or spaces that fill up fluid are formed
mature/Graafian follicle/vesicular spaces are really filled up with fluid
corpus luteum yellow cells left behind which produces progesterone to maintain lining of uterus no baby=scar tissue
follicular atresia Eggs die off or degenerate & can happen @ any
Wall of the uterine tube or fallopian tubes 1. mucosa: ciliated & secretory
2. muscular
3. serosa
Functions of Uterine or fallopian tubes 1. passageway
2. fertilization occurs here
3. environment for embryo in early stages
hymen fold of mucosa partially covers vaginal orifice
Vagina wall 1. mucosa: non-keratinized strat. squamous epithelium contains glands
2. muscularis: smooth & skeletal at the orfice
3. adventitia: dense CT
Mucosa responds to what in the vagina? 1. estrogen
2. cells produce glycogen
3. bacteria use glycogen & produce lactic acid lowers pH: less pathogenic bacteria
Process of Milk Letdown 1. suckling
2. post pituitary
3. oxytocin
4. myoepithelial cells contract
colostrum 1st milk after birth contains less fat & 1st few days antibodies
Lactation contains 1. lipids 40%
2. sugars (lactose) 7%
3. protein 1/2%
Menstrual cycle lasts how many days? 28
Phases of menstrual cycle menstrual: 1-4 days
proliferative or follicular: 5-14 days
secretory or luteal: 15-28 days
ovulation occurs on what day & due to what hormone? day 14 & LH surge
Proliferative/follicular/ovary phase 1. growth of lining w/ increased estrogen levels
2. mucosa from 0 to 2mm
3. glands proliferate and accumulate glycogen
4. coiled arteries spread
5. follicle develops and secretes estrogen due to increased FSH
Secretory/luteal/uterus phase 1. during time of corpus luteum which produces progesterone in response to LH 2. 4mm thick
3. less mitosis but glands hypertrophy
4. glands produce glycogen-rich secretion
5. progesterone maintains lining of uterus
If no pregnancy occurs this occurs @ the end of the secretory/luteal/uterus phase – corpus luteum declines
– decrease in progesterone
– onset of menstruation
Menstrual day 1 1. endometrium destroyed/lost if no implantation
2. spiral arteries constrict and relax repeatedly -> the relaxation causes vessel walls to rupture
3.. only basalis layer (raw) remains
FSH stimulates follicles in the ovary
LH helps the corpus luteum
estrogen effects the uterine lining growth
progesterone for growth of the fetus by maintaining the uterine lining through secretions
Negative feedback for female hormones estrogen & progesterone "turn off" production of FSH & LH becuase no follicles developing
fertilization location: ampulla of uterine tube
How many sperm are deposited in comparison to those who reach the egg? 200-300 million ejaculated
300-500 reach egg
sperm penetrate egg only if 1. capacitation occurs: proteins over acrosome removed
2. acrosome reaction occurs: enzymes released egg induces this occurance
zygote when genetic info merges
a loose ball of cells until 8 cell stage
blastomere 2 cell stage of a zygote each cells is called this
morula compact 16 cell stage until hollow joined together by tight junctions
3 days after fertilization
inner & outer cell mass
blastocyte cells cont. divide & cavity develops
inner cell mass & a outer cells mass
embryo inner cell mass of a blastocyst
trophoblast outer cell mass of blastocyst consists of 2 layers: cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast
cytotrophoblast part of the inner & oval-shaped cells clearly defined & mitotic give rise to syncytio
function: hormone HCG, maintain corpus luteum->progesterone->maintain endometrium->takes over for corpus luteum-> estrogen & pregesterone
synctiotrophoblast part of the outer & multi-nucleated with no cell boundaries
function: chorionic villi
implantation begins end of 1st week and ends during 2nd week – blastocyst reaches uterus 6-7 1. days after fertilization
2. trophoblast “ wears away” bearing (nidation) at uterine lining (endometrium) which grows over the blastocyst
gastrulation formation of 3 germ layers from inner cells mass (embryonic disc)
major developments in embryonic stage 1. formation of placenta
2. main internal organs develop
3. major external features appear
embryonic stage 3-8 weeks
Teratogens examples thalidomide, rubella, alcohol, cigarettes, vitamin deficiency
Teratogens 1. developing child most susceptible to factors causing malformations during embryonic period
2. each system has time period during which most susceptible
¦ ex, neural tube defects like spina bifida or anencephaly at day 28
3rd month (9 week)-birth changes fetal period
– tissue maturation
– organ maturation
– rapid body growth
pregnancy length 280 days: 40 week from LNMP
266 days: 38 weeks after fertilization
chorionic villus sampling 0.8% loss due to procedure
checks chromosomes week 6-8
amniocentesis 0.5% loss due to this
¦ needle takes 20-30 ml amniotic fluid
¦ after week 14
¦ test for a fetoprotein (AFP) which is high in neural tube defects (also test this in mom’s blood)
¦ fetal cells in fluid ? look for chromosomal abnormalities
ultrasound size, position, multiples, malformation, cardiac, abdominal wall defects
abstinence don't have sex 100% non failure rate
coitus interruptus withdrawal of penis before ejaculation
rhythm method Abstaining for sex on days ovulation maybe occurring monitor by temp, cervical mucus, urine test also known as natural family planning. Failure 25/100
condom Cover & prevent from reaching female reproductive failure 11-16/100
female condom Inserted into vagina 20/100
diaphragm Dome latex covers cervix & must be fit properly by physician & inserted before & usually with combination of spermicide failure 15/100
cervical cap Smaller than diaphragm not sized suction to cervix
contraceptive sponge Sponge inserted into vagina with spermicide in it failure 16-32/100
chemical barriers – Spermicides usually with a physical or mechanical barrier
– Alone failure 30/100
oral contraceptives Conception may occur if ovulation occurs but prevents implantation; BC prevent the surge of LH & prevent buildup of uterine lining failure 5/100
Draw backs: weight gain, nausea, breast tenderness, raise BP, smoking with it causes formation of blood clots
injectable contraceptives Depo-Provera IM 1 injection for 3 months prevents oocyte maturing & uterine lining failure <1/100
side effects include: weight gain, develop asthma, migraines
contraceptive implants Little tubes implanted under skin that slowly releases hormones & used for extended period of time failure <1/100
Patch Change patch once a week like pill & stay on in water 5/100
vaginal ring Goes around the cervix & slowly releases hormones
IUD Plastic loop or T in the uterus & effective for years inserted by physician; conception can occur no implantation occurs <1/100
vasectomy cutting of ductus deferens or plugging it; outpatient usually under local anesthesia; still can ejaculate & can be reversed
failure <1/100
tubal ligation cutting uterine tubes major surgery in abd can’t be reversed usually
failure <1/100
gonorrhea males: painful urination, pus discharge, & possible sterility
Female: asymptomatic unless in uterine tube
Cause neonatal blindness
Can spread to other parts of body heart, meningitis, arthritis, etc.
pelvic inflammatory disease In female have repeated inflammation caused by either chlamydia or gonorrhea usually in uterine tube causing scarring causing sterility
syphilis @ site of infection form canker sores usually go into lymph nodes & spreads; even though rash is not there is still there; untreated leads to neural syphilis basically go crazy; neural deficits in newborn
Behavioral BC absitence
Coitus Interruptus
Rhythm Method
Mechanical barrier BC condom
cervical cap
contraceptive sponge
hormonal BC oral or injectable contraceptives
contraceptive implants
vaginal ring
acyclovir relieves the symptoms of genital herpes
genital herpes Herpes simplex II painful urination, blister on genitalia, can be contracted to the baby; association with cervical cancer
HPV Human papilloma virus or genital warts
Genital Warts (HPV) Human papilloma virus that causes the cervical cancer or penile cancer
Can lead to sterility or cancer could kill you
Vaccine prevents the cancer
HIV & AIDS T cells CD4 are killed off in decreasing amount <200 is diagnoses
candidiasis Yeast infection of reproductive tract in females or urinary tract in males
Lesions in vagina or surrounding genitalia which is itchy & irritation
Topical & oral (hard to develop) medications & eat yogurt
Predisposition have some on our body any ways, antibiotics, tumors, pregnant woman, diabetes

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