Ecosystem Review

Question Answer
What is an Ecosystem? the interaction between the biotic (living or once living) factors and abiotic (non-living) factors
What is a biotic factor? parts of an ecosystem that are living or were once
What is an abiotic factor? parts of an ecosystem that are non-living
What are four main abiotic factors? Sun, Air, Water, Soil
What does the sun provide? Provides warmth to living organisms

Provides solar energy (light) for green plants to make their own food

The number of hours of daylight triggers seasonal events, such as:
-plants flowering
-birds migrating

What does water provide? Important for life processes of all living things (plants and animals) such as:
-distributing food particles through their bodies
-digesting food

Important for organisms that live under water, such as:
-trout
-whales
-algae

What does air provide? Provides oxygen (O2), which animals breathe

Provides carbon dioxide (CO2) for plants to use to make their own food

What does soil provide? Provides a home for many animals that live underground
-earthworms

Provides nutrients for plants

What is an organism? any living thing-plant or animal
What's a species? a group of similar organisms that can reproduce
What is a population? a group of organisms of the same species (one species) living together in one place at one time.
What is a community? all the populations of all the living things in an area (more than one species).
What is a habitat? What 4 things does an organism need to find in a habitat? a habitat is the home or location where an organism lives. In a habitat, an organism must find: water, food, shelter and space
What is a niche? an organism’s role (job) in the ecosystem. It includes what it eats, where it lives, and what it does. Two species cannot occupy the same niche.
What are producers? organisms that can make their own food
What 3 things do plants need to take in to make their own food? Sunlight, Water, Carbon Dioxide
What is the process called by which green plants take in sunglight, carbon dioxide and water to make their own food? Photosynthesis
In what part of the leaf does photosynthesis occur? Chloroplasts
What are the green pigments called in the chloroplasts that absorb light? Chlorophyll
What is a consumer? organisms that must eat other organisms (plants or animals) for their food. Consumers cannot make their own food. Consumers come in all shapes and sizes and all eat very different things.
What is a herbivore? plant-eating consumers
What is a carnivore? meat-eating consumers
What is an omnivore? consumers that eat both plants and animals
What is a scavenger? consumers that eat dead plants and dead animals
What are the 3 levels of consumers? Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Consumers
What is a primary consumer? “first eaters”—these consumers eat the producers.
What is a secondary consumer? “second eaters”—these consumers eat the primary consumers.
What is a tertiary consumer? “third eaters”—these consumers eat the secondary consumers.
What is a decomposer? organisms that break down the cells of dead material and recycle the nutrients back into the ecosystem. Eventually all food chains end in decomposers.
What are 3 examples of decomposers? Bacteria, Fungi (mushrooms, molds, yeast), and Worms
What 5 conditions promote decomposers? Warmth, lots of air, lots of food, moisture (water), darkness
What is the difference between a decomposer and a scavenger? scavengers eat dead material that they find (they have mouths) and decomposers break down the cells of dead material.

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