Environmental Ecology- Solid and Hazardous Waste

Term Definition
Solid Waste Any unwanted or discarded material that is not a liquid or gas (no further use)
Solid Waste Types 1. Municipal Solid Waste 2. Industrial Solid Waste
Municipal Solid Waste From homes and workplaces
Industrial Solid Waste From industry and agriculture
Hazardous Solid Waste Characteristics (Established by Federal agencies) Must be: 1. Chemically Reactive 2. Corrosive 3. Flammable 4. Toxic
U.S. Produces 1/3 of all the world's solid waste
How to Reduce Solid Waste Waste Management Waste Reduction
Waste Management Reduce what we already have (after the fact)
Waste Reduction Reduce what we will generate (before the fact)
Ways of Waste Management 1. Bury Waste 2. Burn Waste 3. Transfer (storage) of waste
Bury Waste In open dumps or in sanitary landfills
Open Dumps Dig holes and cover with soil
Sanitary Landfills Wastes spread out, compacted, covered daily with clay or plastic foam; underlying heavy plastic liners to prevent leaching into soil underneath
Burn Waste 90% waste reduction by volume; but adds airpollution requiring expensive air pollution control devices
Storage of Waste Liquid hazardous waste stored in surface impundments (ponds, pits, lagoons) with heavy plastic liners underneath to prevent leaching into underlying soil.
Deep Well Disposal Liquid hazardous waste pumped into underground rock formations beneath aquifers
Waste Reduction 1. Refuse 2. Reduce 3. Reuse 4. Recycle 5. Produce Less 6. Composting
Refuse Do no buy un-needed items
Reduce Lessen consumption of items
Recycle Reuse existing waste items
Primary Recycling Recycle and produce products of the same type Ex. Aluminum cans back into aluminum cans
Secondary Recycling Materials recycled into different products.
Composting The use of bacteria to decompose and recycle biodegradable organic waste Ex. Garbage, leaves, twigs, etc.
Toxicity of Heavy Metals from Waste Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb)both are neurotoxins that are stored in body tissue and cause damage to the nervous system and brain tissue. Can't be broken down. Greatest risk is to fetuses and young children.
Mercury 1/3 from Natural Sources 2/3 from Human Sources
Lead From old pipes and paint
Chelation Medical process to rid body of toxic heavy metal contamination

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