Exam #2–Chapters 7, 8, 9 and 13

Key Points and Key Terms Definitons and Related Info.
Melanin Skin darkening pigment, secreted from cells called melanocytes, stains surrounding cells causing them to darken.
Amount of _______secreted determines skin color. Melanin
Albinism, Vitilago, and Moles/Frreckles are what type of Melanocyte? Malfunctioning
Albinism a person fails to secrete Melanin. Their hair, skin, and colored part of the eye is white.
Vitilago Loss of pigment (melanin) in certain areas of the skin. Creating patches of white skin.
Moles and Freckles Happens when Melanin stains unevenly becoming concentrated in local areas.
Carotene Yellow pigment of the skin, in addition to Melanin. Hidden by the effects of Melanin.
What in Dermis affects skin color? Blood
The affect of skin color lies in what layer of the skin tissue? Dermis
Number of skin conditions is caused by? Blood in the dermis; affecting skin color
Cyanosis Poorly oxygenated blood causes the skin to look blue.
Example of Cyanosis Person who is embarassaed
When a person is embarrassed what happens? Blood vessels in the skin dialate, causing a person to look flushed our blush.
What happens when a person skin looks Pallar? Constriction of blood vessels in the skin, and decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood.
Pallor causes skin to look pale or ashen color
Example of Pallor A person who is scared
Billirubin A person who has liver disease can't secrete this pigment.
Jaundice Billirubin is deposited into the skin and turns it yellow
A person with Poorly functioning Adrenal glands, may deposit excess Melanin in the skin creates what type of look? Bronze Look
Bruise Blood has escaped from the blood vessel and clotted under skin
Ecchymosis Black and blue area in a person
Vernix Caseosa Cheeselike substace covering the skin of a fetus. secreted by sebaceous glands, babies are born with this.
Psychological reason for skin color changes and Pathological reasons? Melanin turns it darker-Carotene turns it yellow…….Jaundice, Cyanosis, Ecchymosis
4 Types of Heat Loss Radiation, Conduction, Convection, and Evaporation
Radiation Loss of heat from warm object (The body) to cooler air surrounding warmer object
Example of Radiation Person in cold room
Conduction Loss of heat from a warm body to a cooler object in contact with warm bosy
Example of Conduction Person sitting on block of ice
Convection Loss of heat by air currents moving over surface of the skin.
Evaporation When liquid becomes gas
Example of Evaporation Alcohol is rubbed into the skin-it evaporates-and cools the skin.
Epidermis Thin outer layer of the skin, composed of stratified squamous epithelial tissue.
Is Epithelium Vascular or Avascular? Avascular—no blood supply of its own
What 2 layers are located in the epidermis? Stratum Germinativuum and Stratum Corneum
Stratum Germinativum Lies on top of dermis, access to rich blood supply, cells of this layer continuously divide producing millions of cells each day.
Stratum Corneum Surface layer of the epidermis, composed of 30 layers of dead flattened keratinized cells that Slough off through wear and tear
Dermis Located under Epidermis. Largest portion of the skin. Composed of dense, fibrous connective tissues
Collagen and Elastin fibers are surrounded by gel like substances here…. Dermis
These make the Dermis Stretchable… Fibers
Callus Increase in epidermis cell division
Corn Overgrowth of epidermal cells in conical shape, causes constant rubbing of the toe.
___% of heat loss occur from the skin? 80%
___% of heat loss through respiratory system–lungs and excretory products (urine & feces)? 20%
Sebaceous Glands are also known as what glands? Oil Glands
Sebaceous Glands Associated with hair follicles. Found where there is hair on the body. Secrete oily substance called sebum, plays unique role in fetus.
Pimple When sebaceous glands become blocked or infected.
Blackhead When Sebaceous glands are exposed to air and dries out
Sudoriferous Glands is also known as what gland? Sweat gland
Sudoriferous glands Located in dermis, have 3 million of these, it has 2 types
Types of Sudoriferous glands are? Appocrine gland and Eccrine gland.
Appocrine Gland associated with hair follicles, found in axillary and gential area. Respond to emotional stress
These glands are active when a person is emotionally stressed, frieghtened, in pain, or sexually excited Appocrine Glands
Sweat by these glands have no odor Appocine glands
Eccrine glands more numerous and widely distributed of sweat glands. Located throughout the body. Not associated with hair follicles.
These glands play an important role in Temperature regulation…. Eccrine glands
These glands normally found on the upper lip, forehead, back, neck, palms and soles Eccrine Glands
These glands make you sweat on hot days, are responsible for sensible prespiration Eccrine glands
These glands can produce 1 gallon of sweat per hour (composed of water and sea salts) Eccrine glands
Modified sweat glands Mammory glands and Ceruminous glands
Mammory glands Located in the breast and secrete milk
Ceruminous glands Found in external auditory canal of the ear, secrete cerumen.
Neonates Produces 2/3 of heat that is produced by an adult and looses twice as much.
Looses heat from large surface area (head) Neonates
Neonates cant shiver. Shiver by process of Non shivering thermogenesis
Neonate have brown adipose tissue, especially w/ neck and shoulder area
BAT Brown adipose Tissue
What of the BAT produces heat? Metabolism
Neonate Limited capacity to dissipate heat leaving them at risk for hyperthermia.
Axial skeleton consist of? Bones of the skull
Skull On top of vertebral column, formed by 2 groups
The Skull is formed by which 2 groups? Cranium and Facial Bones
Cranium Bony structure, encases and protects brain
Cranium contain which 3 bones? frontal, temporal, and parietal bone
Frontal Bone Forms forehead, upper part of the bony structure surrounding the eye.
Parietal Bone 2 of these form the upper sides of the head and roof of cranial cavity
Cranial Cavity Top of the head
Temporal Bone 2 of these are on side of the head close to the ears (temples)
External auditory meatus opening for the ear
What is the Zygomatic process? forms part of the cheek bone
What is the Styloid process? sharp projection used as point of attachment for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx
What is the Mastoid process? Forms a point of attachment for some muscles of the neck, each side has bony projections that sit on 1st vertebra column
Occipital Bone located at the back and base of cranium, has large hole called foramen magnum.
What does the Foramen Magnum do? It allows brain stem to extend downward
What are Condyles Bony Projections
Parts of a long bone Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Epiphyseal disc, Medullary Cavity, Endosteum, Periosteum, and Articular cartilage
Joint is also called ______? Articulation
Diaphysis Long shaft of bone, has mostly compact bone, and provides strength
Epiphysis Enlarged ends of the bone. Has a thin layer of compact bone that overly spongy bone and is covered by cartilage.
Epiphyseal Disc Growing long bone that contain bands of Hyaline cartilage. Near Proximal and Distal end of long bone. Longitudal bone growth occurs here.
Medullary Cavity Hollow center of diaphysis.
Medullary cavaity in Infants…. cavity is filled w/ red bone marrow for cell production
Medullary caviaty for Adults cavaity filled with yellow bone marrow and functions as storage site for fat
Endosteum inside the medullary cavity. Type of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity.
Periosteum Tough fibrous connective tissue membrane that cover outside of diaphysis.
Periosteum anchors to all bone surfaces, except cartilage
Periosteum Protexcts bone and has vessels that has nourishment for the underlying bone
Articular cartilage outer surfae of epiphysis. Has smooth and shiny surface, and decreases friction within a joint
Cervical Vertebrae count…. C1 through C7
Thoracic vertebrae count… T1 through T12
Lumbar vertebrae count… L1 through L5
Vertebral Foramen opening for the spinal cord and forms the vertebral canal
Spinous process Rubs hands down your back to feel this process. Why vertebral column is also known as the spine.
Vertebra has barklike lamina
Spina bifida failure of lamina to fuse during fetal development
Vertebral Column Backbone extends from skull to pelvis, has 26 bones stacked in a column
Vertebral column performs (4) functions: Forms support/structure for head and thorax, attachment site for the pelvic girdle, encases the spinal cord and provide flexibility for the body.
Named according to its location Vertebral Column
How many cervical vertebrae is there in the neck region? 5
Large Vertebrae is called what? Vertebrae Prominens, used as land marks for anatomy
What is the number/location that describe the Large Vertebrae C7
How many Thoracic Vertebrae is there in the chest region? 12
How many Lumbar Vertebrae are there in the lower back region? 5
Sacrum Forms posterior wall of the pelvis and has 5 sacral vertebral that fuse here.
The body (spine) has what 4 normal curves? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral
Cervical and Lumbar curves do what? Bend toward the front of the body
Thoracic and Sacral curves do what? Bend away from the front of the body
These curves center head over body, providing balance needed for walking… Cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral
Scoliosis Lateral curvature of the spine. If injured it can compress abdominal organs; diminishing rib cage capacity and breathing.
Lordosis Exaggerated lumbar curve, sometimes called sway back
Kyphosis Exaggerated thoracic curve that can impair breathing. Sometimes called Hunch back
Abnormalities of the spine are caused by what? May be genetic defect, in response to disease or poor posture
Ossification Bone formation
This method begins in late embryotic period, contain formation of fibrous connective tissue and hyaline cartilage (shaped like mini skeleton) Ossification
Ossification occurs in what 2 ways? Intramembranous and Endochondral
Intramembranous Ossification In flat bones of skull and has thin layer of connective tissue.
This type of ossification occurs when Osteoblast migrate to flate bones… Intramemebranous
Osteoblast Bone forming cells
Osteoblast Secrete calcium and other minerals into spaces between membranes forming bones
Endochondral Ossification occurs in all other bones. Bone tissue replaces cartilage as it matures (replace w/ bone). process continues until all cartilage have been replaced by bone
Fetal Skeleton Mostly cartilage
2 major differences between infant skull and adult skull? Fontanels and un-fused sutures. Infant skull is not fused like an adult
Infants skull is covered by what? Fibrous membrane because its not all bone.
2 major fontanels large diamond shaped anterior fontanel & smaller posterior triangular occipital fontanel
2 smaller fontanels more lateral, anteriolateral, posteriolateral fontanels.
By what age does all the fontanels in the infants skull become bone? 2 years old
Un fused sutures allows what? the skull to compress during childbirth
Microcephalia sutures of infant skull fuse too early. Preventing growth of the brain.
This type of condition is characterized by small cranium, restricted brain growth and impaired intellectual function? Microcephalia
If the brain bulges outward …this is a response to what? increased pressure in the brain
If the brain looks sunken in…this is a response to what? presence of dehydration
Hydrocephalus water on the brain
What happens during hydrocephalus? excessive fluid accumulate in the brain forcing bones apart and there by enlarging the skull
Smooth Muscle Found in walls of viscera tubes and passageways. Also known as Visceral muscle, involuntary, non striated, stretchier than skeleton muscle
Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart. Pumps blood throughout the body. Have intercalated disc that promote rapid conduction of electrical signals throughout heart, striated, involuntary, 0 capability for regeneration
Skeletal Muscle attached to the bone, voluntary, striated, produce movement and maintain posture, stabilize joints, helps maintain body temp., limited capacity for regeneration.
Muscles of the face… frontalis, orbicularis, leutor palpebrae superioris, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomaticus, and platysma
What are the chewing muscles? Masseter and Temporalis
Frontalis flat muscle that cover the frontal bone. raisies eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
Orbicularis Sphincter muscle that encircles eye. Control size of opening. closes the eye and assist w/ winking, blinking & sqinting
Leuator palpebrae superioris Elevates opens eyelid. origin in bony orbit of the eye, insert into upper eye lid
orbicularis oris sphincter muscle that encircles the mouth. forming words. known as the kissing muscle
Buccinator origin on maxilla and mandible. inserts into the orbicularis oris. compression of cheeks–sucking, blowing, whistling.
This muscle may be considered a chewing muscle… Buccinator–postions food between teeth, helps infants suck
Zygomatis smiling muscle, extends from corner of mouth to cheek bone.
Platysma originate in fascia of shoulder and anterior chest, insert into tissue of mouth and lower ace. Allows mouth to widen (pout)
Masseter origin on maxzilla zygomatic process. contraction closes the jaw.
Temporalis fan shaped muscle, extend from flat portion of temporal bone to mandible
Muscles of the shoulders and arm… Tapezius, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, latissmus dorsi, deltoid, teres major and rotator cuff
Trapezius allow for shrugging, contracts and move clavicle and scapula
Serratus Anterior located on sides of chest. extend from upper ribs. has jagged shape. the shoulder are lowered and arms push forward (pushing a cart)
Pectoralis major Large blood muscle helps form anterior chest wall. Contraction moves arms across in front of chest. (pointing to object in front of you) adducts/rotate arm medially and gym excercises are meant to hypertrophy these.
Latissmus dorsi Middle, lower back region. lowers shoulders and brings arms back. (pointing behind you)
Deltoid form round part of shoulder and shoulder pad. adducts arm raising it to horizontal position (scarecrow position)
Teres major long round muscle, extend arm and shoulder joint. assist w/ medial rotation and adduction of arm and shoulder joint
Rotator cuff Impingement syndrome or rotator cuff injury
Rotator cuff has 4 groups of muscles… subscalpularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor
The 4 rotator cuff muscles form what? cap and cuff for stabilizing joint muscle
Triceps brachii muscles that support weight of the body when doing push ups or walking on crutches
Triceps brachii called boxers muscle, lies along posterior surface of humerus and ulna.
Triceps brachii Prime mover of extension of forearm at elbow joint
Biceps brachii anterior surface of humerus. Acts synergentically w/ brachialis and brachioradiali to flex arm.
Prime movers for flexing arm Biceps brachii and Brachialis
When asked to make a muscle this muscle is more visible…. Biceps brachii
Pronator Muscle anterior forearm–palms down is achieved by this muscle
Pronation palms down
Supinator Muscle posterior forearm and cause palm up
Some of the longest, strongest bones in the body… Leg, thigh and foot
Muscles that move the thigh at the hip that's attached to the pelvic girdle…. Gluteal muscles, illiopsoas, tensor fascia latae, and group of adductor muscles
Types of adductor muscles adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis and pectineus muscles
Gluteal Muscles Located on posterior surface. contains the gluteus maximus, minimus, medias
Illiopsoas located near groin. contraction rotates/flexes thigh laterally
Tensor fascia latae lateral thigh. contraction flexes and abducts thigh at hip joint
Group of adductor muscles Located on medial surface of thigh. they press the thighs together
Other types of muscles that move the thigh… quadraceps, femorous, Sartorius and hamstrings
Muscles that move the leg Extensor and flexor
Quadraceps femoris located on anterior thigh, most powerful muscle in the body, prime mover for extension of leg at the knee, like kicking football
Quadraceps femoris has 4 parts that cause extension of the leg Castus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, and vastus femoris
Hamstring Located on posterior surface of the thigh, extend from ischium to tibia, flex at the knee, extend the thigh. strong tendons can be felt behind here
Muscles that move the foot Located on anterior, lateral, posterior, surfaces of the leg
Muscles that move the foot Tibialis anterior, peroneous lpngus muscle, Gastrocnemius and soleus, Sartorius, and calcaneal or Achilles tendon
Tibialis Anterior Located on anterior surface, causes dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot (plantar flexion)
Peroneous Longus Muscle located on lateral surface, everts (turn outward) the foot, support arch of foot, and assist w/ plantar flexion
Gastrocnemius and Soleus Major muscles on Posterior surfaces of leg and form 1/ of the calf leg
Sartorius Long muscle that crosses obliquely over anterior thigh, origin is on the illium; inserts on tibia, allows you to cross your legs, flex leg at knee and abducts laterally to rotate thigh
Calcaneal or Achilles tendon Strongest tendon in the body, contraction causes plantar flexion, allows us to stand on tip toes
Motor Unit Consist of nerve and inner muscle fibers, single neuron. strength of contraction is determined by a number of these
Recruitment The more of these activated the greater force of contraction.
Chemoreceptor change in chemical concentration of substance. responsible for taste and smell
Pain receptors aka nociceptors Respond to tissue damage and pain
Thermoreceptor Respond to a change in temperature such as heat and cold.
Mechanoreceptors respond to changes in pressure or movement of fluids. responsible for hearing and equillibrium
Photoreceptors Respond to light and energy. responsible for sight, rods, cones, and the eye
Touch receptor or tactile receptor Found in the skin, allows us to feel cats fur. found in lips-tips of fingers, toes, tongue, penis and clitoris
Pressure receptor Located in the skin in subcutaneous tissue, and is timulated by heavy ball in your hand
Propriception receptors sense of orientation or position, allows us to locate body part w/out looking, and is located in muscles, tendons, joints and inner ear
Photoreceptors Stimulated by light and produces nerve impulse. consist of rods and cones
Rods Help to see in the dark (black& white)
Cones Helps to see color and clear image
3 layers of the eye sclera, retina, and choroid
Sclera Tough outer layer on posterior eyeball, forward extension becomes cornea (colored part of eye) extrinsic eye muscles attach here, contain sat_flash_1s of eye and shapes it.
Extrinsic eye muscle moves eye left to right
Choroid middle layer in posterior eyeball, forward extension become ciliary body and iris, highly vascular to nourish retina. iris is located here
pupil opening or hole in middle of iris
Iris regulate the amount of light entering the eye
Retina Inner layer of posterior eyeball, site of photoreceptors, optic disc, contains high concentration of cones. fovea is found here
Fovea contain so many cones its considered area for most acute vision
Optic disc Optic nerve w/ no rods or cones, images are not seen, calling it the blind spot
Posterior cavity of the eyeball… located between lens and retina. Contain citreous humor
Anterior cavity of the eyeball… Located between lens and cornea. Contain aqueaous humor
Formation and Drainage of Aqueous humor Formed by ciliary body, circulate through pupil behind cornea and drains through canals od schlemm
Extrinsic eye Muscles Move eyeball in bony orbit
Intrinsic eye Muscles move structures within eyeball (iris and ciliary muscles) responsible for pupil dialation
Extrinsic muscles of the eye consist of: 4 rectus muscles, 2 obliques, and primary innervation from CNIII
Rectus muscles moves eyes up, down, side to side
Oblique muscles rolls eyes
CNIII considered the… occulomotor nerve (cranial nerve)
Circular muscle contain Miosis (pupils constrict) and Muscarinic receptors
Radial Muscle contain Mydriasis (pupils dialate) and alpha 1 receptors
Muscarinic receptors control what? Size of pupils in control of how much light enters the eye
Ciliary Muscles causes lens to change shape
Refraction pertains to… the lens
During process of refraction of the lens Ciliary muscles pull suspensory ligaments, ligaments pulls on lens; changing its shape
Refraction Bending light waves to focus on retina, lens primary refracting structure
Errors of refraction Myopia, Hyperopia, and Astigmatism
Myopia focal point in front of retina
Hyperopia focal point behind retina
Astigmatism results in irregular curved cornea
Accomodation ability of lens to change shape to focus on a close object
Convergence eyes move medially toward nose (cross eyes)
Emmetropia ability of eye to refract light w/ out assistance of corrective lens
Presbyopia W/ age lens looses its ability to change shape, diminishing ability to accommodate for close objects
Visual Pathway pathway from retina to brain
Visual pathway–Optic Chiasm Brain sees 1 image
Pathway of light–how it occurs cornea-aqueous humor-pupil-lens-vitreous humor-rods and cones
Pathway of nerve impulses Rods and cones-CNII-occipital lobe
3 parts of the ear External, middle and inner
External Ear part of ear you can see, composed of auricle and external auditory canal
Auricle (pinna) Latin for wing, covered by loose fitting skin, gathers sound waves
External Auditory Canal Passageway for sound waves to enter the ear. hollowed out of temporal bone 1 inch long 1/2 inch wife
Tempanic membrane separate what from what? External ear from middle ear
Middle ear small air filled chamber, located n tympanic membrane. contain tiny bones, small muscles and Eustachian tube. has connective tissue. vibrate in response to vibrations
Eustachian tube passageway that connects middle ear to pharynx or throat (aka auditory tube)
3 tiny bones in middle ear malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stappes (stirrups)
Inner ear intricate system. consist of tubes and passageways hollowed out of temporal bone. has 3 parts
3 parts of the inner ear vestibule, semicircular canals and cchlea
Vestibules and Semicircular canals both concerned with balance
Cochlea concerned with hearing, nail shape, part of bony labyrinth (network of tubes), sends nerve impulses
Organ of Corti Tiny hairs on receptors (cells), stimulated by bending of hairs
Pathway of vibrations. Sound waves-tympanic membrane-ossicles-oval window-organ of corti
Pathway of nerve impulses organ of corti-CNIII (cochlear branch)-temporal lobe
2 characteristics of sensation. Projection and adaptation
Projection Brain refers info back to source
Adaptation Sensory becomes less, w/ continuous stimulation it becomes less responsive.
Primary visual structures of the eye are? The eye and Visual pathway
Visual accessory structures Eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, eyelashes, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscle
Eyebrows keep sweat out of eyes-somewhat like a shade
Eyelids protect eye, wash tears away from it
Conjunctiva White of the eye, lines inner surface of eyelid
Eyelashes Lines edge of eyelid, traps dust
Lacrimal apparatus Ducts for tears, upper lateral part of orbit
Extrinsic eye muscle Moves eye left
Adaptation Sensory becomes less, w/ continuous stimulation it becomes less responsive.
Primary visual structures of the eye are? The eye and Visual pathway
Visual accessory structures Eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, eyelashes, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscle
Eyebrows keep sweat out of eyes-somewhat like a shade
Eyelids protect eye, wash tears away from it
Conjunctiva White of the eye, lines inner surface of eyelid
Eyelashes Lines edge of eyelid, traps dust
Lacrimal apparatus Ducts for tears, upper lateral part of orbit
Extrinsic eye muscle Moves eye left
Atlas C1 first cervical vertebrae, has no body but depressions. allows us to nod yes
Axis C2 Second cervical vertebrae, projections called the dens, acts as pivot or swivel for atlas. allows us to nod no (side to side)

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