Question Answer
What class of drugs deplete sodium stores and decreases blood volume? Diuretics
Which thiazide diuretic can be used with GFR less than 30 mL/min? Metolazone (thiazide-like)
Why is metolazone advantageous over loop diuretics? More mild diuresis
Which loop diuretic is the most potent? Bumetanide
Which loop diuretic has the longer duration of action? Torsemide
What is ethacrynic acid? Loop diuretic
What is eplerenone? aldosterone receptor antagonist
What is amiloride? sodium channel blocker
What medication(s) are centrally acting agents/vasomotor center? methyldopa, clonidine
What is the MOA of centrally acting sympathoplegic agents? Bind to presynaptic alpha-2 receptors and decrease NE release/decrease outflow to vasculature
Does methyldopa have CNS ADE? yes (sedation, mental lassitude, decreased concentration)
Which drug binds to the imidazoline receptor? clonidine
Which medications have withdrawal symptoms? Clonidine, beta-blockers
When is clonidine CI? depression patients
What is trimethaphan? ganglion-blocking agent
What is the MOA of ganglion blocking agents? blocks nicotinic cholinoreceptors on postganglionic neurons (decrease sympathetic outflow)
What are guanethidine and reserpine? adrenergic neuron-blocking agents/sympathetic nerve terminals
What amino acid is the precursor for NE? tyrosine
What is the MOA of reserpine? prevents dopamine from entering vessicles
What is the MOA of guanethidine? prevents release of NE and depletes NE in vessicles via anesthesia of sodium conduction channels
Does reserpine or guanethidine act peripherally but not centrally? guanethidine
Does reserpine or guanethidine irreversibly block uptake and storage of amines? reserpine
Which medication has EPS symptoms? reserpine
Why does reserpine act centrally and peripherally? lippophilicity
Where do beta-blockers work in the kidney? Beta-1 receptors on granular cells of JG apparatus
Where do beta-blockers work in the body? Heart, brain, kidney (JG cells), presynaptic adrenergic neurons
What drug is the prototype of non-selective beta blockers? propranolol
What are the indicators of beta-blockers in patients? resting bradycardia, smaller rise in BP in exercise
What drug is the prototype of cardioselective beta blockers? metoprolol
What drug is the prototype of long half life beta blockers? atenolol
How is atenolol excreted? renally
Which beta-blocker(s) have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity? (partial agonists) pindolol, acebutolol
Which drug is the prototype for mixed adrenergic antagonists? labetolol
What is the beta:alpa antagonist ration for labetolol? 3:1
Which drug is the prototype for short half life beta blockers? esmolol
What is the MOA of alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists? block alpha-1 receptors and dilate arterioles and venules
When are alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists most effective? In combo with diuretic or beta-blocker
What do beta-blockers prevent? reflex tachycardia
What is a common ADE with alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists? first dose syncope
What drug is the prototype for alpa-1 blockers? prazosin
Which alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonist is an irreversible blocker? phenoxybenzamine
Which drug has no MOA? Hydralazine
Which vasodilator dilates arterioles but not veins? hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide
Which vasodilator can have fast and slow metabolizers? hydralazine
Which medication can have a lupus-erythematosus-like syndrome ADE? hydralazine
What is minoxidil? vasodilator
What is the MOA of minoxidil? opens K+ channels of smooth muscle (stabilizes membranes)
Which vasodilator is used for hypertensive emergencies? Sodium nitroprusside, diazoxide, fenoldopam
Which vasodilator activates gyanylyl cyclase? Sodium nitroprusside
Which vasodilator dilates both arterioles and veins? Sodium nitroprusside
What is the "antidote" of cyanide accumulation? sodium thiosulfate==> thiocyanate is still toxic
Which vasodilator causes sodium natriuresis? fenoldopam
When should fenoldopam be avoided? glaucoma patients
What is the MOA of calcium channel blockers? decrease sodium influx into arteriolar smooth muscle celsls
What are the prototypes for DHP CCBs? amlodipine, felodipine, and nifedipine
What are the prototypes for non-DHP CCBs? verapamil and diltiazem
Which CCB's work on cardiac muscle and vasculature? non-DHPs
What class of medicine activates the kallikrein-kinin system? ACE inhibitors
What is the MOA of ARBs? Competitive antagonists at the AT1 receptor
What three responses does Angiotensin II cause besides ADH, thirst, and vasoconstriction? rapid pressor response, slow pressor response, and vascular and cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling
What type of response is increased aldosterone release? slow pressor response
What type of response is increased afterload and vessel wall tension? cardiac remodeling
What are the prototypes for ACE inhibitors? captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril
Chronic use of what class of drugs causes increased transient plasma angiotensin II levels? ARBs
Which drug class has antiproliferative and antiremodeling effects> ARBs
What is the prototype for ARB/AT1 receptor blocker? losartan
Which drug is a renin inhibitor? aliskiren

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