Information processing

Question Answer
Piaget thought that there was __________ shifts in development but today it is thought that development is more c_____________ and that development is heavily depended on a child's knowledge/expertise in a particular d_________. qualitative, continuous, domain
Cognitive Theory of Devel. is different from Piaget's as it has many dif. t______, devel. is seen as _________, devel. is NOT development of l___, emphasis on how and w____ children develop rather than focusing on wh_ a child can do at a certain stage theories, continuous, logic, why, what
All of the Cognitive Development theories agree on….? The structure of the information processing system (three memory stores)
The Structure of the Information Processing System is one of the first models of info processing which describes cognitive processing in terms of ______ memory stores and processes used to operate on the stores three
Sensory memory occurs in a ________ of a second but has rapid d________. A 5 year olds sensory memory is just as good as an _________. fraction, decay, adults
There are three types of sensory memory. What are they? Iconic memory, Echoic memory, Haptic memory
Which type of sensory memory is for visual senses? Iconic memory
Which type of sensory memory is for auditory senses? Echoic memory
Which type of sensory memory is for tactile senses? Haptic memory
Short term memory lasts for about __ to __ seconds and rehearsing can increase this 15 – 30
We can remember 3-7 units where adults can remember _ and adults can remember up to _. This is where children and adults differ. And this is referred to as a bottle_____ 3, 7, bottleneck
Short term memory has r_____ retrieval and improves with ____. We can measure STM with digit ____ where person reads out digits and we have to recall them rapid, age, span
With long term memory are their limits on how much information can be stored? And is this true for children and adults? No :), yes it is true for both
So the difference between children and adults is the _________ term memory not the ________ or sensory __________ short, long memory
Working memory is different – it is when you have to store last digit that you heard and process the new digit that you are hearing. This processing is interfering with the ______ of the digits. So we have a working and a short term memory storing
All cognitive development theories also agree that cognitive development is all about the l______ of the child and the me______ (processes) used by the child to overcome these. limitations, mechanisms
So cognitive development refers to the overcoming of processing limitations (memory limitations) by using dif. processes (____ and ela______) which allow improvement in memory It is an attempt to be more precise about what happend in cognitive system….? rehearsal and elaboration, ….when child performs a particular task and what accounts for changes in performance.
Write out what the cognitive developmental theories differ on… ….
What does this refer to? "knowing what features of a task are important, or knowing what part of experimental instructions are crucial when completing a task" (One thing they disagree on emphasis on) Encoding
What does this refer to? "ability to generalize solution to other problems when applicable" (One thing they disagree on emphasis on) Generalisation
What does this refer to? "practice makes the strategy automatic and thus more effective – the amount of attention required to do something (e.g. learning to drive)" (One thing they disagree on emphasis on) Automatisation
All the cognitive developmental theories agree that the child has l___________ to overcome. For example that children have e_____________ limitations such as? and __________ memory limitations such as? limitations, encoding, such as encoding wrong information (5×5)/5 they encode + sigh instead of x sign or encode correct info but lack appropriate strategies for solving it. Working, such as Retrieval problems and storage limitations
Case's theory of cognitive development says that children are unable to attend to and process all the relevant information for a task due to limits in _________ memory (in other words limits in processing capacity working
Write out the rest of Case's cognitive theory of development …. 🙂
Who has the alternative view on capacity increase? Pascual – Leone
Working memory limitations can be overcome using memory strategies such as….? Rehearsal and elaboration. Now write these out
Two other things can also improve development… k________ and m_____________? knowledge and metacognition. Now write these out
Whose theory i this referring to? "Limits in processing capacity –> automisation frees up processing space" Case's
Siegler emphasises the importance of str__________ and how children acquire new strategies and how existing strategies c_________. strategies, change
Write out Sieglers Theory of Cognitive Development …..
Siegler illustrated how even young children apply certain strategies when problem solving using Piaget and Inhelder's ________ ________? Balance Beam
Piaget and Inhelder used balance beam to show different stages og development of logic (member we dont agree with stages or logic now).Child shown beam with weights on either side and asked which way it will tip-Only by _years do kids use both weight &..? distance when estimating whether the beam will balance or tip a certain direction
Seigler identified four difference strategies that children may use to solve the task, write these out ….
Young children (3-4 yrs) use rule _. Then when you train them on encoding and give them feedback (kn_______) 5 year olds now use rule _ or _. So knowledge is important, they have basic logic ability if given knowledge-they just didnt realise what was ____ 1, knowledge, 2 or 3, important
Seiglers approach is that with age we get more _________ and thus better en______of important information cos knowledge leads to correct str_________ which decreases or increases? operating space and increases or decreases? functional storage space? knowledge, encoding, strategies, decreases, increases
Are there stages? No, children use a range of different strategies at any one time. This is referred to as ______________ __________ where at any given age children may be using two or more strategies. So is not a neat stage-like progression overlapping waves
So it is not ______ that develops, it is factors like k______, str______, ________ memories tat develop which result in logic. In addition to these, speed of execution is also important logic, knowledge, strategies, working
Who suggested the important of information processing speed? Kail
Kail said that the time required to execute mental operations declines steadily during childhood and adolescence. So speed is the time required to execute __________ operations. mental
The question is "what underlies age differences in processing speed? Write out Siegler and Chi's answers to this. ….
The question is "what underlies age differences in processing speed? Siegler said that..? – More efficient strategies (Siegler, 1983) – it’s the strategies that is developed, that strategies are dependent on knowledge – you have to encode the correct information (the balance beam) > this is what Siegler said.
The question is "what underlies age differences in processing speed? Chi said that….? Chi said that it’s more elaborated knowledge so more neural connections – which allows for faster processing speed. So what was central to her view is that knowledge is important – that knowledge was accounting for memory for chess pieces.
Write out the implication of these views ….
What is the implication of these views? Strategies&knowledge develop @ dif. rates in different domains(domainspecific).But could there b other domain general mechanisms that's @ play?=yes ->inform. proc. So changes in proc.speed shouldn’t b consistent across domains(so domain specific also)
What is the alternative idea to the idea of it being domain specific? write it out That it is actually a global (across-domain) change in processing speed (non specific domain – the processing speed development is consistent across domains)
What did Hale find out? She found that it did not matter what task she gave, (obviously some tasks are harder so find faster reaction times in the first task relative to the mental rotation) that younger kids were slower by the same amount/proportion on each of these tasks.
What tasks did Hale use? Choice reaction time, Letter matching, Mental rotation
Hales results supported what hypothesis? The global trend hypothesis that processing speed gets faster with age over all tasks regardless of the task
So hales results suggest a domain specific or domain general change? Domain general change
Kail also looked at this and looked at every single study published and found the same or different results? The same, now write out what he found
So the question is… what role does experience play in this particular skill of processing speed? Who look at this question? Kail and Park
What is this referring to? " hypothesis that processing speed gets faster with age over all tasks regardless of the task" The global trend hypothesis
Kail and Park gave peps 3000 or more trials on on a mental rotation task and found that practising eliminated the difference in speed between __ yr old and adult. So initial performance determines domain _____ mechanisms and later performance…? is determined by task specific mechanisms where you gain speed through automaticity and that sort of thing. Write out this experiment
Speed in humans can be seen as the CPU time (human) = rate of propagation between neurons (which is due to amount of neurotransmitter, n_______ of connections and s_________ of connections and my________ number, strength, myelination
So what are the three things that account for our increase in processing speed? neurotransmitters, number of connections, strength of connections, myelination
Write out these things and the rest of lecture notes about the graphs shown in class
What does this refer to? "Using the encoded information and relevant previous knowledge to construct a strategy for dealing with the problem" Strategy formation
What does this refer to? "knowing what features of a task are important or knowing what part of experimental instructions are crucial when completing a task" Encoding
What does this refer to? "Practice makes the strategy automatic and thus more effective – the amount of attention required to do something (learning to drive) is less, less time thinking about it so frees up limited resources to do other things like sing" Automatisation
What does this refer to? "Ability to generalize solution to other problems where applicable" Generalisation
Automatisation means that additional information can be _______________. And this improves with e_______ and p________ processed, experience, practice
Working memory limitations such as r_________ problems and __________ limitations can be overcome by using what two memory strategies? retrieval, storage, rehearsal and elaboration
What does this refer to? " the mental repetition of information (repeating a phone number before having chance to write it down) Rehearsal
What does this refer to? "making associations between items to help our recall (if you have to remember lady and broom, younger children make assoc. of 'lady had a broom'. What assoc. would older children make? and why? Elaboration, would make" lady flew on broom at Halloween" because they have richer knowledge so elaborate in richer way so words have richer semantic/meaning so have better memory.
What two other things improve development? knowledge and metacognition
What is this? "is now recognised as the driving force of development rather than the result" knowledge
What did Chi find in terms of knowledge effects on memory? That experienced child chess players could remember more chess pieces than non experienced adults even though children have worse STM, and this is because they have more knowledge so can group chess pieces into chunks -into larger groups-can remember more
However sometimes your knowledge can effect the way you think… and therefore h________ your creative solution and limit your problem solving in some cases hinder
What is this? "persons awareness of their cognitive abilities and limitations" metacognition
Adults are more aware of the limits of working memory so this helps them find more e______ ways but kids are over_______ about their learning and memorisation ability. This relates to ? efficient, overconfident, metacognition
Strategies and knowledge are a domain _________ aspect of development specific
Information processing is domain ________ aspect of development general
What role does experience play? Kail and Park found that initial performance is determined by domain _______ mechanisms (information processing) while later performance is determined by domain _______ mechanisms (automaticity thus stored response) general, specific
Speed is the rate of….? (CPU for humans) propogation of neurons

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