|What is Memory?||The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Note: Memories are constructed by combining information we already have with new informations that comes through our senses. Not Recorded.
|What is Encoding?||The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.|
|What is Storage?||The process of maintaining information in memory over time.|
|What is Retrieval?||The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.|
|What is Elaborative Encoding?||The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
Note: associated with lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe.
|What are Semantic judgements?||Require participants to think about the meaning of the words.
Ex: Is hat a type of clothing?
|What are Rhyme Judgments?||Require participants to think about the sound of the words
Ex: Does hat rhyme with cat?
|What are Visual Judgements?||Require participants to think about the appearance of the words.
Ex: Is hat written uppercase or lowercase?
|What is Visual Imagery Encoding?||The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.
Note: Simonides' Method to create an enduring memory. (TED Talks). Activates regions in the occipital lobe
|What is Organizational Encoding?||The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items.
Note: grouping or categorizing. Activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe.
|What does Survival Encoding do in regards to Darwin's Theory of Evolution?||Survival encoding draws on elements of elaborative, imagery, and organizational encoding. Thinking about information with regard to survival value is more interesting or emotionally arousing making it easier to recall.|
|What is sensory Memory?||A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less.|
|What is Iconic Memory?||A fast-decaying store of visual information|
|What is Echoic Memory?||A fast-decaying store for auditory information.|
|What is Short-Term Memory?||A type of storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute. Limited to how long and how much information can be held
Note: Avg. 15-20 seconds. Can hold 7 meaningful items at once
|What is Rehearsal?||The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
Note: By repeating, you "re-enter" it into short-term memory giving it another 15-20 seconds of shelf life.
|What is Chunking?||Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.|
|What is Working Memory?||Active maintenance of information in short-term storage.
Note: Acknowledges both the limited nature of this kind of memory storage and the activities that are commonly associated with it. Associated with regions within the frontal lobe.
|What is Long-Term Memory?||A type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
Note: Has no known capacity limit.
|What is Anterograde Amnesia?||The inability to transfer new information from short-term store into the long-term store|
|What is Retrograde Amnesia?||the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation.|
|What is Consolidation?||The process by which memories become stable in the brain. Boosted by sleep.
Note: over seconds or minutes to longer periods of time: days, weeks, months and years
|What is Reconsolidation?||Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.
Note: it might be possible to eliminate painful memories by reconsolidation.
|What is Long-Term Potentiation?||A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier.|
|What are NMDA Receptors?||A receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation.|
|What are Retrieval cues?||External information that helps bring stored information to mind.|
|What is the Encoding Specificity Principle?||The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded.
Ex: you recall things better when you are in the same place you learned it
|What is State-Dependent Retrieval?||The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is i the same state during encoding and retrieval
Ex: if you study drunk you should take the test drunk for best results
|What is Transfer-Appropriate Processing?||The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match.|
|What is Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?||A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items.|
|What is Explicit Memory?||The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences|
|What is Implicit Memory?||The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection.
Note: not consciously recalled, but their presence is "implied" by our actions
|What is Procedural Memory?||The Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or "knowing how" to do things|
|What is Priming?||An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.
Note: an example of Implicit memory. Suggests that the brain "saves" a bit of processing time after priming
|What are the Two Types of Priming?||Perceptual Priming: reflects implicit memory for the sensory features of an item. (Visual Cortex)
Conceptual Priming: reflects implicit memory for the meaning of a word or how you would and object. (frontal lobes)
|What is Semantic Memory?||A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.
Note: hippocampus is not necessary for acquiring new semantic memories
|What is Episodic Memory?||The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
Note: only form of memory that allows us to engage in "mental time travel", projecting ourselves into the past and revisiting events that have happened to us.
|What is Transience? (1/7 sins of Memory)||Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time.
Note: Occurs during the storage phase of memory.
Think:Hermann Ebbinghaus (Curve of Forgetting)
|What is Retroactive Interference?||Situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier.|
|What is Proactive Interference?||Situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later.|
|What is Absentmindedness? (2/7 sins of Memory)||A lapse in attention that results in memory failure.
Note: Common cause is lack of attention or Divided Attention.
|What is Prospective Memory?||Remembering to do things in the future.
Note: Remembering to Remember
|What is Blocking? (3/7 sins of Memory)||A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it. You are experiencing a full blown retrieval failure.
Ex: The tip-of-the-tongue experience
|What is Memory Misattribution? (4/7 sins of Memory)||Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source.
Note: primary cause of eyewitness mis-identifications
|What is Source Memory?||Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired.
Note: People often recall a fact or recognize a person/object but misattribute the source of knowledge
Ex: Deja Vu
|What is Destination Memory?||Remembering who we have told something before.|
|What is False Recognition?||A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
Ex: Deja Vu
|What is Suggestibility? (5/7 sins of Memory)||The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.
Note: People develop false memories in response to suggestions from some of the same reasons of misattribution
|What is Bias? (6/7 sins of Memory)||The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences.|
|What are the 3 types of biases?||Consistency Bias: the past to fit the present
Change Bias:differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past.
Egocentric Bias: exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make yourself look better
|What is Persistence? (7/7 sins of Memory)||The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
Note: Usually occurs after disturbing or traumatic incidents. Involves regions of the Amygdala
|What are Flashbulb Memories?||Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events.
Ex: People remember where and what they were doing during 9/11