Key Terms Jesus

Term Definition
What is Memory? The ability to store and retrieve information over time.

Note: Memories are constructed by combining information we already have with new informations that comes through our senses. Not Recorded.

What is Encoding? The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.
What is Storage? The process of maintaining information in memory over time.
What is Retrieval? The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
What is Elaborative Encoding? The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.

Note: associated with lower left part of the frontal lobe and the inner part of the left temporal lobe.

What are Semantic judgements? Require participants to think about the meaning of the words.

Ex: Is hat a type of clothing?

What are Rhyme Judgments? Require participants to think about the sound of the words

Ex: Does hat rhyme with cat?

What are Visual Judgements? Require participants to think about the appearance of the words.

Ex: Is hat written uppercase or lowercase?

What is Visual Imagery Encoding? The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.

Note: Simonides' Method to create an enduring memory. (TED Talks). Activates regions in the occipital lobe

What is Organizational Encoding? The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items.

Note: grouping or categorizing. Activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe.

What does Survival Encoding do in regards to Darwin's Theory of Evolution? Survival encoding draws on elements of elaborative, imagery, and organizational encoding. Thinking about information with regard to survival value is more interesting or emotionally arousing making it easier to recall.
What is sensory Memory? A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less.
What is Iconic Memory? A fast-decaying store of visual information
What is Echoic Memory? A fast-decaying store for auditory information.
What is Short-Term Memory? A type of storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute. Limited to how long and how much information can be held

Note: Avg. 15-20 seconds. Can hold 7 meaningful items at once

What is Rehearsal? The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.

Note: By repeating, you "re-enter" it into short-term memory giving it another 15-20 seconds of shelf life.

What is Chunking? Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
What is Working Memory? Active maintenance of information in short-term storage.

Note: Acknowledges both the limited nature of this kind of memory storage and the activities that are commonly associated with it. Associated with regions within the frontal lobe.

What is Long-Term Memory? A type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years

Note: Has no known capacity limit.

What is Anterograde Amnesia? The inability to transfer new information from short-term store into the long-term store
What is Retrograde Amnesia? the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation.
What is Consolidation? The process by which memories become stable in the brain. Boosted by sleep.

Note: over seconds or minutes to longer periods of time: days, weeks, months and years

What is Reconsolidation? Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.

Note: it might be possible to eliminate painful memories by reconsolidation.

What is Long-Term Potentiation? A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier.
What are NMDA Receptors? A receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation.
What are Retrieval cues? External information that helps bring stored information to mind.
What is the Encoding Specificity Principle? The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded.

Ex: you recall things better when you are in the same place you learned it

What is State-Dependent Retrieval? The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is i the same state during encoding and retrieval

Ex: if you study drunk you should take the test drunk for best results

What is Transfer-Appropriate Processing? The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match.
What is Retrieval-Induced Forgetting? A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items.
What is Explicit Memory? The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
What is Implicit Memory? The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection.

Note: not consciously recalled, but their presence is "implied" by our actions

What is Procedural Memory? The Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or "knowing how" to do things
What is Priming? An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.

Note: an example of Implicit memory. Suggests that the brain "saves" a bit of processing time after priming

What are the Two Types of Priming? Perceptual Priming: reflects implicit memory for the sensory features of an item. (Visual Cortex)
Conceptual Priming: reflects implicit memory for the meaning of a word or how you would and object. (frontal lobes)
What is Semantic Memory? A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.

Note: hippocampus is not necessary for acquiring new semantic memories

What is Episodic Memory? The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place

Note: only form of memory that allows us to engage in "mental time travel", projecting ourselves into the past and revisiting events that have happened to us.

What is Transience? (1/7 sins of Memory) Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time.

Note: Occurs during the storage phase of memory.

Think:Hermann Ebbinghaus (Curve of Forgetting)

What is Retroactive Interference? Situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier.
What is Proactive Interference? Situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later.
What is Absentmindedness? (2/7 sins of Memory) A lapse in attention that results in memory failure.

Note: Common cause is lack of attention or Divided Attention.

What is Prospective Memory? Remembering to do things in the future.

Note: Remembering to Remember

What is Blocking? (3/7 sins of Memory) A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it. You are experiencing a full blown retrieval failure.

Ex: The tip-of-the-tongue experience

What is Memory Misattribution? (4/7 sins of Memory) Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source.

Note: primary cause of eyewitness mis-identifications

What is Source Memory? Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired.

Note: People often recall a fact or recognize a person/object but misattribute the source of knowledge

Ex: Deja Vu

What is Destination Memory? Remembering who we have told something before.
What is False Recognition? A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before

Ex: Deja Vu

What is Suggestibility? (5/7 sins of Memory) The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

Note: People develop false memories in response to suggestions from some of the same reasons of misattribution

What is Bias? (6/7 sins of Memory) The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences.
What are the 3 types of biases? Consistency Bias: the past to fit the present
Change Bias:differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past.
Egocentric Bias: exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make yourself look better
What is Persistence? (7/7 sins of Memory) The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget

Note: Usually occurs after disturbing or traumatic incidents. Involves regions of the Amygdala

What are Flashbulb Memories? Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events.

Ex: People remember where and what they were doing during 9/11

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