Key Terms Jesus

Term Definition
What is Consciousness? A persons' subjective experience of the world and the mind

Note: Utterly private and essential to what it means to be human

What is Phenomenology? How things seem to the conscious person

Note: their understanding of mind and behavior

What is the problem with other minds? the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the conscious of others

Note: no way you can tell if another person's experience of anything is at all like yours

What is the mind/body problem? The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and the body

Note: Rene Decartes believed that the human mind or soul is a separate entity made of a "thinking substance"

What are the 4 basic properties of consciousness? Intentionality
What is Intentionality? Consciousness is always about something. Intentionality is the quality of being directed toward an object.

Note: Conscious attention is limited

What is Unity? Resistance to division

Note: Multitasking lowers your performance of all tasks

What is Selectivity? The capacity to include some objects but not other. filter our some information or also tun in other information

Note: Related to Dichotic listening and the cocktail party phenomenon

What is Transience? The tendency to change
What is Dichotic Listening? A task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages present to each ear

Note: related to Selectivity

What is the Cocktail Party Phenomenon? A phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby.

Note: related to Selectivity

What is Minimal Consciousness? a low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may out behavior

Note: Kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness. Can't know for sure that they experience the things that make them respond.

what is Full consciousness? Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state

Note: involves not only thinking about things but also thinking about the fact that you are thinking about things.

what is Self-Consciousness? A distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention to the self as an object.

Note: tendency to evaluate yourself and notice your shortcomings

What is the Experience sampling technique? People are asked to report their conscious experiences at particular times.
What is Mental Control? The attempt to change conscious states of mind

Ex: someone troubled by a recurring worry about the future might choose to try not to think about this because it causes too much anxiety and uncertainty.

What is Thought Suppression? The conscious avoidance of a thought.

Note: Fyodor Dostoevsky remarked on the difficulty of thought suppression. It doesn't really work. The more you try not think of something the more it comes to mind

What is the Rebound Effect of Thought Suppression? The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression, suggest that attempts at mental control may be difficult indeed.
What is Ironic Processes of Mental Control? Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them.

Note: In attempts not to think of a white bear, a small part of the mind is ironically searching for the white bear. Works outside of consciousness.

What is Dynamic Unconscious? An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces.

Note: thoughts people keep secrete from others and may not even acknowledge to themselves.

What is Repression? A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness.

Note: "Freudian slips"
ex: Obama slipped by referring to "my muslim faith"

What is Cognitive Unconscious? The mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person
What is Subliminal Perception? A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving

Note: Subliminal perception does occur, but the degree of influence it has on behavior is not very large.

How does the Unconsciousness Mind affect Decisions? Unconscious minds seemed better able than conscious minds to sort out the complex information and arrive at the best choice.

Note: Go with your Gut

What are Altered States of Consciousness? Forms of experience that depart from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind.

Note: changes in thinking, disturbances in the sense of time, feelings of the loss of control, changes in emotional expression, or meaning of significance

What is the Circadian Rhythm? A naturally occurring 24-hour cycle
What is REM Sleep? Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity.

Note: 5th sleep stage. Similar to Beta waves, suggesting that the mind is active as it is during waking. pulse quickens, blood pressure rises, signs of sex arousal

What is the Hypnagogic State? It is the pre-sleep consciousness
What is the Hypnic Jerk? A sudden quiver or sensation of dropping, as though missing a step on a staircase.
What is the Hypnopompic State? The glimmerings of waking consciousness return again in a foggy and imprecise form as you enter post-sleep consciousness, and then awake
What are Beta waves? During waking, these changes involve alternation between high frequency activity during alertness.
What are Alpha Waves? Lower frequency activity during relaxation
What happens during the First Stage of Sleep? The EEG moves to frequency patterns even lower than alpha waves (Theta Waves)
What happens during the Second Stage of Sleep? Patterns are interrupted by short bursts of activity called sleep spindles and K complexes, and the sleeper becomes somewhat more difficult to awake
What happens during the Third and Fourth Stages of Sleep? The deepest stages of sleep, known as slow-wave sleep, in which the EEG patterns show activity called Delta Waves
What is an EOG? Electrooculograph. An instrument that measures eye movements.
What is Insomnia? Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep.

Note: Causes of insomnia, including anxiety associated with stressful life events, or sometimes a sign of emotional difficulties.

What is Sleep Apnea? A disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep

Note: Usually snores, appears most in middle-age overweight men

What is Somnambulism? Sleep-walking. Occurs when the person arrises and walks around while asleep

Note: 1/4 of children 11-12. contrary to popular belief, it is safe to wake sleepwalkers or lead them back to bed

What is Narcolepsy? A disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities.

Note: intrusion of REM sleep. sleep attacks lasting from 30 seconds to 30 minutes.

What are the five major characteristics of dream consciousness that distinguish if rom the waking state? 1. we intensely feel emotion
2. Dream though is illogical
3. sensation is fully formed and meaningful
4. dreaming occurs with uncritical acceptance (seem normal rather than bizarre.
5. difficulty remembering the dream after it is over.
What is Sleep Paralysis? The experience of waking up unable to move
What are Night Terrors? ( or Sleep terrors) Abrupt awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal
What is Manifest sat_flash_1? A dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning. ( What actual happens in your dreams)
What is Latent sat_flash_1? A dream's true underlying meaning. (What you think the meaning behind the dream is)
What is Activation-synthesis model? The theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep.
What is a Psychoactive Drug? A chemical that influences consciousness of behavior by altering the brain's chemical message
What is Drug Tolerance? The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect.
What is Physical Dependence? When pain, convulsions, hallucinations, or other unpleasant symptoms accompany withdrawal. People who suffer from physical dependence seek to continue drug use to avoid getting physically ill

Ex: Caffeine headache

What is Psychological Dependence? A strong desire to return to the drug even when physical withdrawal symptoms are gone.
What are Depressants? substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system. Have a sedative or calming effect, tend to induce sleep in high doses and stop breathing in high doses. Can produce both physical and psychological dep

Note: Alcohol is the most common

What is the Expectancy Theory? The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations.
what is the Balanced Placebo Design? A study design in which behavior is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus
What is Alcohol Myopia? A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations.

Note: Theory holds that when you drink alcohol, your fine judgment is impaired. Might act crazy or get emotional

What are Stimulants? Substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels. Increase alertness and motivation but with negatives such as fatigue and negative emotions

Note: Caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine, modafinil, & ecstasy

What are Narcotics or Opiates? Highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain

Note: long-term use produces both tolerance and dependence. Endorphins are secreted in the pituitary gland and other brain sites creating a kind of natural remedy

What are Hallucinogens? Drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations. Emotions ranging from blissful transcendence to abject terror. Unpredictable

Note: LSD, Acid, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, shrooms

What is Marijuana? the leaves and buds of the hemp plant. Affects judgment and short-term memory and impairs motor skills and coordination

Note: Contains THC. activated by neurotransmitter called anandamide which is involved with regulation of mood, memory and appetite.

What is the Harm Reduction Approach? A response to high-risk behavior that focuses on reducing the harm such behaviors have on people's lives.
What is Hypnosis? An altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring involuntary
What is Posthypnotic Amnesia? The failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget.
What is Hypnotic Analgesia? The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis.
What is meditation? The practice of intentional contemplation

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