Memory decay and distortion

Question Answer
Eye-witness memory (and memory in general) is R_______________ Reconstructive. Your taking other bits of information and are trying to fit it together in a way that suits you.
So memories are not S__________. They are veyr much reconstructed. Its like you are putting your memory into a dodgy storage place, it can come out different, ruined. (like if you put your furniture in a dodgy furniture storage place. Static
The status of memory can be altered between storage and retrieval because of three things happening. What are they? Passage of time, Intervening knowledge/experience and misinformation
Who came up with the idea of passage of time? Hermann Ebbinhaus
Hermann Ebbinghaus studied memory and the passage of time effect. He experimented on ________ where he tried to remember nonsense syllables himself
Who came up with the forgetting function? Hermann Ebbinghaus
So Hermann Ebbinghaus talked about what two things? Passage of time and the Forgetting function
With the forgetting function Hermann Ebbinghaus taught us that it is like a _______ line. True or false? False, it is not like a linear line, instead you lose a lot initially, quite quickly
So the passage of time and the forgetting function shows that you forget a lot to being with ….
With secually abused children, they dont understand what is happening at the time, but when they are older they think back and understand it, so ________________ knowledge can change the way you think about an event intervening
Study on intervening knowledge showed that when subjects read case history on "Betty K" & 1week later were told she was gay or not gay, subjects made more label c_____ errors than label-in______ errors when recalling case. Intervening knowledge is the..? consistent, inconsistent, was being told that she was heterosexual or homosexual. Write up this study
Hindsight bias (is a type of intervening ____________/_____________) and is when knowledge of current events, emotions or outcomes biases j_______ and memory of processes leading up to these events etc. "I knew that that was going to happen" knowledge, experience, judgement
What does this refer to? "the tendency to view past events as inevitable consequences of their predecessors, saying "that was always going to happen" Creeping determinism
Hindsight bias and Creeping determinism is basically the same thing. True or false? True, she is not going to ask what the difference between them is
Hindsight bias and creepy determinism can influence both _________ about what happened and __________ for what happened. This is a problem when you see an important event and then are interviewed by the police. judgement, memory
Study on intervening knowledge showed subjects video of couple fighting. Half them were told that afterwards, girl was found dead and half them told they had broken up. What did those in 'murder' condition recall? They were more likely to accurately remember that the man made threatening statements towards girl (which actually did happen in convo) but were more likely to inaccurately recall that he had hit her and that he had threatened to harm her classmate
Who came up with the idea of the standard misinformation procedure for the misinformation effect? Elizabeth Loftus
What is the Standard Misinformation Procedure? Event –> Misled (by post event information (P.E.I) –> interviewed
Write out the examples of the standard misinformation procedure
Study on sources of misinformation where subjects shown video of robbery, then showed TV report on the robbery which either contained misinformation or did not contain misinformation. What did they find? Almost one third of misinformed participants incorporated the misinformation into their subsequent memory reports while control participants were highly accurate. Write this out
Co-witness Discussions can be a type of ________________ effect misinformation
According to witnesses the primary purpose of Co-witness discussions is to "_________ _________". But what a court wants, is in_____________ recollection of the individual witnesses. provide information, independent
What are the four possible advantages of co-witness discussion? May prompt witnesses to recall forgotten details, may reinforce memory, may aid recovery from trauma and may paint a more accurate overall picture. Memorise these
What are the five possible disadvantages of co-witness discussion? May contaminate independent recollection, may weaken the prosecution case, witnesses may become unsure of their testimony, may lead to reports of "common things" and collusion (secret or illegal cooperation or conspiracy in order to deceive others)Memoris
Solomon Acsh came up with the memory ______________ paradigm conformity
In a Asch study, he used the social contagion paradigm. What does contagion refer to? The spreading of harmful ideas
In Asch study using social contagian paradigm, a subject and confederate see scenes and then take turns recalling items form scenes out loud with the confederate erroneously reporting some items that weren't present. What happened? Subjects reported these suggested wrong items. Read through the different variations of this experiment and write out.
What does this refer to? "where co-witness pairs observed the same event but with hidden discrepancies secretly inserted using a presentation trick" MORI technique
Read an example study of co-witness discussion with confederate paradigm
Study had pairs of people watch video of crime. Participants did not know that they each watched slightly different video. Half were allowed to discuss video before being interviewed individually. What were the results? Write out and read actual article 71% of participants in the discussion condition reported items that they had not seen whereas none of participants in control conditions reported unseen items. And 60% who had no seen theft declared the girl guilty of stealing after co-witness discussion.
What effect is this referring to? "even the simple act of repeating a statement can increase the strength of ones belief in its truth" This is an issue with retelling/recounting events Illusory Truth Effect
What is the other issue with retelling/recounting events? (look at notes and write out and memorise!!!) Even in the absence of any input form a conversational partner, people asked to recall a witnessed event a) bias their descriptions to reflect their own goals and b) subsequently report believing these biased descriptions & c) falsely recall…
This is an example of what? "I caught a fish that was this big" when actually it was a gold fish" or when people say "we" called 111 and then they believe that they themselves started calling 111". error in retelling/recounting because of bias in their own descriptions which lead them to falsely report believing these biased descriptions.
Study done on Retelling and recounting errorswhere they showed participants photos of shabbily-dressed white man holding a razor arguing with an unarmed, well-dressed black man. What was the finding from their retellings of photos? Over half participants transposed characters. They said that the shabbily-dressed black man with a knife and a well-dressed white man was in photo
There are for options for how misinformation effect can work (the mechanisms of it). What are they? Write them out and memorise …..
The idea that because we dont know whether they picked orange because they dont remember the apple, led to the study where they modified the test. Instead of presenting participants with choice between correct item and misinformation, they…? presented them with a choice between the correct item and a novel item, to look specifically at the memory for the original event. Read and write out this study and look up its article!!!!!
Factors that influence susceptibility to misinformation are: ___ (children more susceptible than adults), ____ (easier to mislead after delay), __ (low IQ are more susceptible), ___ exposure, write out the rest…. age, delay, IQ, repeated
A study told participants that they had consumed alcohol (when really their drink was only tonic water). They then took part in standard misinformation procedure. WHat did they find? That those who thought they had drunk alcohol, were more susceptible to misleading post event information, not just overall memory for video (encoding). So even the belief you have drunk alcohol makes you more susceptible

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