Natural resource policy

Question Answer
What is meant by 'human dimension' of natural resources management? How people view their environment
Name two places in/near Tucson where the science of ecology has been formally presented since the early 1900s? ASDM & Santa Rita experimental ranch
Briefly describe the vision for the School of Natural Resources and the Environment. To provide innovative research and applications that lead to sustainable management of Natural Resource
What kind of real- world problems does the School of Natural Resources address? Wildfires, bufflegrass, invasion, droughts, population
What is ‘NEON’ and why is it relevant to the School of Natural Resources? National Ecological Observatory Network. It uses sensors to study climate change, land use, and invasive species.
What is the ‘Sun Corridor’ and where does it occur? Its a metropolitan area from Tucson to Maricopa County.
What are some steps one should take as an undergraduate in the School of Natural Resources to help ensure success in the “real world” after graduation? Talk to advisors, do field work
What is the ‘survival’ perspective and how did it shape our views on nature? Struggle for existence. Man against nature, so nature needed to be tamed.
What is meant by a ‘utilitarian’ perspective on the environment? Natural resources for food, water, and shelter.
What is "deferred gratification?" Store food, so you can utilize later.
What is an "anthropocentric" perspective? Human-centered world
What were some of the beliefs of Anglo-Europeans settling the New World that shaped how they (and we) viewed nature and the environment? Natural resources were a gift from the creator. Man has dominion over nature.
How has the Anglo-European concept of 'civilization' and 'progress'? Believed that they can modify the environment to suit their needs as a growing population
What is 'Manifest Destiny' and how does it relate to notions of 'civilization' and 'progress'? It means the rain follows the plow- if we plant crops, then God will give us rain.
Explain the belief that 'rain follows the plow' that was prevalent during the settlement of the New World. If we plant crops, God will give us rain.
What are some examples of 'impediments to civilization' and how do these relate to how people view nature? Trees, rivers, native peoples. It makes people think they can remove them whenever they want.
What is the thesis of the book 'Guns, Germs, and Steel'? How is it related to colonialism? We often disrupt the traditional systems of natural resource use. Colonists quested for natural resources but violated traditional methods.
How did capitalism and free enterprise influence our views toward nature? They believed that land could be bought and sold. It was a pattern of exploiting environments and finding new ones after,
What s the basic pattern of human-natural environment interactions that has been repeated over and over throughout history and around the world? Bountiful resources
Human populations grow and expand
Develop new technology
Over-exploit environment
Develop restrictive regulations
Seek areas with bountiful resources—> Human pop grows..
What is meant by the 'next ridge syndrome' and how does it relate to early 'solutions' to environmental problems in the New World? Because of bountiful and seemingly inexhaustible resources, people felt that when they used up the resources in one area, then they could simply move to a new area
What is 'conservation' and why can it be difficult to agree on what constitutes it? Conservation: sensible, careful, and wise use of natural resources. What is sensible, careful, and wise??– subjective words
Define maximum yield As much as we can get
Define sustainable yield Ecological yield that can be extracted w/o reducing the base 'capitol'
Define maximum sustained yield 'Managing on the edge'– take as much as we can w/o reducing capitol
Which kind of yield should we do and why? We should shoot for sustainable yield that isn't at its maximum so we can factor in problems such as less rainfall
What is 'preservation' and how is it different from conservation? Preservation allows some land and its creatures to exist without significant human influence. Conservation is using the land and preservation wants less human interaction.
What are some challenges associated with preservation. How much land can be set aside and in what configuration.
What is ecology? Basic science dealing with relationships between organisms and their environment.
How is environmental science different from ecology. Environmental science- chemistry; studies the effects of pollutants on the environment while ecology- biology; studies all factors that affect the distribution and abundance of organisms
Why is ecology important for resource conservation, preservation, and environmental science? It is the science that underlies all of those 3
What are some examples of various fields or sub-disciplines in ecology? Aquatic vs terrestrial
Biotic vs abiotic
Plant vs animal vs microbial
What kinds of things do 'ecosystem scientists' study; how is this perspective different from that of other kinds of ecologists? Ecologists who view ecological systems look at energy flow and nutrient cycling. They're focusing on trophic levels (ie producers, decomposers..) rather than species
What is an 'environmentalist'? People concerned about our impact on environmental quality (ie air) and wasteful use of resources.
What are some distinctions between an environmentalist and an ecologist? Environmentalists are often NOT trained ecologists (usually socially motivated)
Should ecologists and natural resource scientists be environmentalists? Why They should be environmentalists since their work involves the environments so they should have that level of concern about the environment
What did the assigned article by Strong say about ecologists vs environmentalists? They should be environmentalists since their work involves the environments so they should be concerned about it.
What are some of the basic and applied sciences and what is the distinction between them? Basic science: Astronomy, Chem, Physics
Applied science: Applying knowledge from one or more basic scientific fields to practical problems ie Wildlife Mnagement
What is Conservation Biology, when did it emerge, and what its unique perspective? Conservation Biology is the recognition of the importance of biological diversity.
Emphasizes intrinsic value of all forms of life, not just those with economic value.
Why is it important to consider ethics in addition to basic and applied sciences? We can know why we should conserve, to do the right thing that preserves the environment
What are the three major ethical perspective on natural resources Preservation Ethic
Conservation Ethic
Land ethic
Describe the early preservation ethic (who and basic tenants) John Muir- Intrinsic beauty of nature; nature is a temple; spiritual enlightenment
Describe the early conservation ethic (who and basic tenants) Gifford Pinchot- Nature has utility; source of commodities
Describe the early land ethic (who and basic tenants) Aldo Leopold- each species is a component of complex ecological system and a product of a long evolutionary history
What were some things going on in the Gilded Age? Economy grew 400%
Technological Advances
Titans of industry created monopolies
Little government regulation
What is stewardship and how does it relate to natural resource conservation? Responsibility for taking good care of the resources entrusted to one
What is the first rule of intelligent tinkering? the first rule of intelligent tinkering it to keep all the pieces. So, if we loose ‘pieces’ of ecosystems, we risk the system loosing its function; and if the pieces lost cant be replaced, then the system wont function the same
What is implied by 'citizen-members', 'stewardship,' and 'husbandry' in Leopold's Land Ethic? Humans are not "above" any other organisms. We are just another piece and need to work together with every other component.
What is "Reconciliation Ecology"? Design and manage habitats for productive human use and maintenance of ecosystem structure, function, and processes.
Give some examples of applied sciences that are based on principles of ecology.. Wildlife and Fisheries Management
Watershed Management
What is meant by 'agroecosystem'? The living and non-living components in the environment in a agricultural area
Phoenix and Baltimore are examples of 'Urban LTER' sites. What does this mean? They are cities growing at large rates. Their ecosystem structures and functions are being observed
How are principles of ecology relevant to natural resource policy? Policy is based on good objective ecological science- this is the way it should be done. Gives objective of how to set policy
What is the origin of the word 'ecology?' Greek
'Okios' = homes
'Logos' = study of
Why do we say ecology is a young science? Why might is be argued that humans have a long history of practicing ecology? The first books were published in 1900. But indians did practice it
List some definitions of ecology Structure and function of ecosystems
Distribution and abundance of organisms
Organisms in relation to environment
The biology of ecosystems
Why is pedology important to ecology? Soil defines which plants grow where
Why is climatology important to ecology? Climate can define which organisms can live where
Why is zoology important to ecology? Zoology teaches us the behavior of animals. Important to know how animals interact with their environment
Why is it important for ecologists to be grounded in the basic science? Everything is connected- need to know about each specific part
Why would knowledge of ethology and sociobiology be potentially useful for an ecologist? Ethology is the study of behavior- so ecologists would need to know mating behaviors. Sociology would tell an ecologists about hers, packs..
What is an ecosystem? A biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area as well as the biotic physical components of the environment
What are the abiotic and biotic components of the environment? Abiotic- nonliving
Biotic- living
Do ecosystems have a characteristic size and shape? It varies
What do ecosystem scientists study? Both abiotic and biotic interaction as an integrated system
What is the reductionist approach in science? involves dissecting systems into their constituent components and studying the components in isolation
What is the holistic approach to science? Taking into the account all aspects of someone's needs
What is the ecological approach to science? Concerning the distribution of plants and animals
What is biology? The study of living things- their structure, function, and adaptations
what is taxonomy? The classification of organisms and their evolutionary relationships
What is ecology? Study of distribution and abundance of organisms, how organisms interact with each other and their environment
Define species A group of organisms that share a common gene pool capable of interbreeding and producing viable offspring
Define population All the individuals of a given species in a given area
Define community All the populations in a given area
Define ecosystem The community enlarged to include abiotic factors
What is an autecologist? Ecologists that specialize in a certain species of animals
What do population biologists or population ecologists study? Birth/death rates, dispersal, emigration, longevity, immigration of all the individuals of a given species in a given area
What do community ecologists study? All the populations of a given area. Plant communities, small mammal communities..
How is an ecosystem different from a community? Ecosystems is the community enlarged to include abiotic factors
What did Leopold mean when he said that "and is not merely soil?" The land represents an ecological system in all of its complexity; and we have an ethical responsibility for taking care of the resources embodied in ‘the land’.
What sorts of things do ecosystem scientists study? Characteristics of ecosystems- size, shape, boundaries
What is a biome? Regional ecosystem; characterized by distinctive plant formations, climates, and animals.
Is the biosphere an ecosystem? Why or why not? Yes; it's a global ecosystem that contains organisms interacting with their environment
Are ecosystem open or closed? Why? Ecosystems are open because other ecosystems outside of it affect it
How are the boundaries of ecosystems determined? Boundaries of ecosystems are determined by the observer
How does the concept of 'emergent properties' apply to ecosystems? Emergent properties apply to ecosystems because the whole is greater than the sum of parts. Some Interactions only happen when it as a whole
How does the concept of 'synergism' apply to ecosystems? All components of an ecosystem work to produce an effect greater than their individual efforts. Things that happen when all the components interact ex: alchol and pills together . Separate, they have different effects
What do we mean when we say ecosystems have 'non-reducible properties?' Non-reducible means that you cant break them up into their separate components
What ideas were illustrated using the blind men and elephant example? You define something by what you specifically observe about it
In the 'Song of the Galvilan' section of Sand County Almanac, Leopold likened plants, animals, and soils to what? are responsible ?for it.
Plants, animals, and soil were likened to music.
What specific group of people was Leopold critical of in 'song of the Gavilan'? Professors. They select a subject and dedicate their lives to taking it apart. This process is dismemberment, the place of dismemberment is the university.
What was the gist of the quote from E.O. Wilson? There is a lot information available to us, just putting it all together is difficult
What were the 3 major periods defining human/wildlife relationships over the past 600 years in North America? Precolonial and colonial, era of exploitation, and conservation
Relative to Anglo-Europeans, the impact of Native Americans on wildlife in North America was rather minimal. Why? They had smaller numbers, low technology
What important habitat management tool used today was also used by Native American's before European contact? Why ? Use of fires in eastern forests– increased diversity
After contact with Europeans, how did native american lifestyles and environmental impacts change? Numbers drastically dropped due to disease, they obtained horses and guns
Were early Spanish explorers interested in wildlife such as bison? Explain. No, they were primarily interested in gold/silver and religious converts. They had no room to ship or store animal products.
What were two major impacts of Spaniards on North American ecosystems in the colonial period? Introduction of domestic livestock and introduction of exotic plants
How did Russia impact north american wildlife in the early 1800s? In what geographic region. The Russians nearly eliminated sea otters and fur seals. Near California, Pacific coast region.
Contrast the impacts of colonial Spaniards to those of the British, Dutch, and French. Spaniards really had no explicit impacts. The British, Dutch, and French exploited the costal resources- fished, hunted birds, and marine mammals.
What is meant by the phrase 'commercially extinct' The population of animal is too low for a business to make any money shipping for the resources
What are the 4 elements of the 'recipe for disaster' for wildlife exploitation? Seemingly unlimited resources +
Philosophical predisposition to exploit +
Technological ability to exploit effectively
+ Rapidly expanding human population
What was the 'Myth of Superabundance' and what is its legacy? Current day examples. Belief that populations are not disappearing; they are simply in a different area. (US thought the passenger pigeons had all moved to Canada.
What were some of the factors that lead to the rapid demise and near extinction of bison int he mid-late 1800s? First- bison bones were used for fertilizer and china. Later, Bison hide was used for leather in factory belts. Most of the Bison (meat) was wasted
How does market hunting differ from sport hunting? Market hunting is hunting for profit- need to harvest a lot, sport hunting is for leisure- there are controls (bag limits)- $ from license is used to help animal
What are 5 requisites for recovery of depleted wildlife population? Public appreciation of the problem,
Strong leadership,
development of science of ecology,
wildlife management, development of a funding system to support wildlife
Why were passenger pigeons, bison, and egret populations devastated in the 1800s? Commercial hunting. Egrets (rookeries)- plumage; killed during breeding season
Bison- bones used for fertilizer and china
Passenger- meat
Commonality: large # but large greed
Who were some of the early advocates for conservation in North America? Marsh, Hornaday, Calin, Roosevelt
What did George Marsh do? Scientist/Congressman- Wrote "Mand and Nature"
What did William Hornaday do? Wrote amazing report to the Smithsonian on the demise of bison
What did George Catlin do? Artist called for the protection of Indians and wildlife
What did Teddy Roosevelt do? Gave conservation national visibility
What were the key factors contributing to the development of scientific principles of wildlife management? Science of ecology: recognized the importance of habitat in determining the wellbeing of a population of animals
Who wrote the first text on wildlife management principles, and when? Aldo Leopold- Game Management 1933
Dr. Shaw emphasized three things that need to be managed for wildlife conservation. What are these? Wildlife, Habitat, and People
Is the biggest threat to wildlife conservation in recent decades overexploitation or loss of habitat? Loss of habitat- our population keeps growing
Traditional wildlife management emphasized hunting and fishing. What are some areas of emphasis of modern wildlife management and conservation? Non-game wildlife, diversity; aesthetic- photographs
Used to be managing animals themselves; now gotta provide and manage a good habitat
What is a watershed? How big is a watershed? A physical point where water drains to. Varies
What sort of things are watershed managers concerned with? How land and other resources are used on a watershed in order to meet social goals without adversely affecting soil and water resources
What are some characteristics of Southwestern watersheds that make them unique from those in other parts of the US? Arid climate- ephermeral streams
Population increasing
High consumption use of water
What is typically the greater concern in the Southwest, water quality or water supply? Why? Water supply- potential evaporation exceeds precipitation
What is a ephemeral stream? Only flows after rainfall, usually dry
What is a perennial stream? Flows 90% of the time
What are intermittent streams? Like ephemeral, but sometimes staggared
The highest consumptive uses of water in the SW USA are associated with what land use? Agriculture
Land use in the West has transitioned from being 'extractive' to amenity driven'. What does this mean? Instead of used for livestock, now for recreation
What are some water quality issues; and of these' which one is typically of most importance in the Southwest? Heavy metals, nutrients, organics, sediments.Erosion and sedimentation is SW primary problem.
Heavy metals in southwestern groundwater and streams primarily come from what sources? Mines
What are some watershed management concerns? Protecting and improving soil productivity (erosion);
Stream flow regime Management (water supply);
Protection of aquatic and riparian habitat;
Water quality management
Watershed management is interdisciplinary. What are some of the fields of science that watershed managers draw upon? Earth science, ecology, and management
What is Integrated Watershed Management? The process of managing human activities and natural resources on a watershed basis. Allows us to protect water resources and addess population growth.
In what kinds of ecosystems do most threatened and endangered species occur? Riparian and aquatic ecosystems
Over __% of Arizona's riparian and wetland systems have been lost over the past century. 70%
What factors contributed tot e losses of ri[arian and wetland systems? Limited water, pollution, and channel erosion
What is natural resources 'information science' and what are some of the tools used? The application of computer technology to solve resource and environmental problems. Remote sensing, modeling, and simulation
What 'GIS' and 'GPS' refer to? Global Positioning System
Geospatial Industry
How have GIS, GPS, and remote sensing tools revolutionized natural resources management? Efficiency: managers can now collect field data with a GPS in the morning and make a map before the end of the day.
Dr. Guertin showed some maps of how land use in the New West has changed compared to traditional land uses. What do these maps indicate? Less farming and more tourist/amenity economy
Define rangeland Lands not suitable for crop production or commercial forestry and uncultivated land providing habitat for livestock and wildlife
What are some examples of ecosystems that constitute rangeland Grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, savannas
Where do rangelands occur? 70% of the world's land mass
Why are rangelands important? Provides fedd for domestic ruminants, source of food and fiber, habitat, influence hydrology
What is the name of the professional society that is concerned with the ecology and management of rangelands? Society for Range Management
What are some of the scietific disciplines that rangeland management draws from Animal science, sociological sciences, plant, abiotic
What is herbivory livestock grazing
What is grazing consumption of herbaceous plants
What is browsing Consumption of woody plants
What are some key problems on rangelands Overgrazing, desertification, plant invasions
Why was buffelgrass introduced to the Sonoran Desert, and why is it now a problem? Introduced to control erosion from overgrazing. Now it spreads rapidly and is a great fire starter
What was the gist of the article "Cows or Condos?" Ranglands are being used for urban development more and more. Some argue that ranching is detrimental. PLants would most likely have a negative response to the removal of cattle.
ONe rangeland management problem in the rangelands of the western USA is the transformation of grasslands to what? Woodylands
When managing herbivores on rangelands, what are some of the key things we need to know about them? What do they eat, nutritional requirements, does the land have this? Health issues..
Approximately when did the numbers of grazing livestock peak in rangelands of the USA and Australia? What was the basis for the subsequent decline in numbers? Early 1900s. Overgrazing.
Related to the above question, livestock numbers began to stabilize at moderate numbers in the 1940s. why? Federal agencies came into play
What is the 'Tragedy of the Commons" and how does it relate to rangeland degradation? Everyone exploits something for their self-interest even if it is not theirs? Lots of grazers brought on more cattle on rangelands because there was so much grass. Lead to overgrazing.
What are some examples of federal legislation that contributed to rangeland degradation in western USA? Homestead Act, Forest Reserves Act,
What was the homestead act granted 160 acres after 5 years residence. Encouraged people to move west for farming purposes 1862
What was the forest reserves act Set aside forested areas for timber; grazing privileges were allocated to ranchers on these areas
What role did the Transcontinental Railroad Act of 1862 play in rangeland degradation. Land was taken for the railroad, so people farmed on less land
When was the Taylor Grazing Act introduced and what did it do? 1934. Gave grazing privileges only to those who could provide hay and water to livestock
About when did the environmental movement begin? Began with Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, 1962
How did the environmental movement differ from the conservation movement? Environmental focused on degradation and urban environments.
Conservation focused on resource extraction, rural land
Who was Thomas Malthus and what was his perspective on the environment? About when did he live? He was a clergyman that believed that population would outweigh agriculture production, 1800s
What was Henry David Thoreau's perspective in the environment? Transcendentalism. Humans would be better off in their natural state. "In wilderness is the preservation of the world."
Were Muir and Pinchot allies or antagonists? How so? They were allies up until they started butting heads over a reservoir in California. Pinchot was utilitarian- all about using resources for humans (nicely though). Muir wanted to preserve the land because it was beautiful.
What were some events in the 1960s and 70s that led people to begin to question authority and the federal government? There was tension about bombs, students in college were being drafted, baby boomers were independent college students now, civil rights movement
What was the environmental problem that was the focus of Silent Spring? DDT spraying on Long Island, NY and birds dying
Describe how silent spring contributed to the modern environmental movement. It showed how human were abusing the environment and there is a lot that we do that we dont know the affects of
What other factors beside Silent Spring contributed to the modern environmental movement? Industrialism- byproducts and pollutants
Population growth
How did post WWII socio-economic conditions in the US contribute to the modern environmental movement? It caused people to question the government more easily
What was Lynn White's theory on the cause of environmental degradation and provide an example of why his reasoning was weak. He sais that Christianity caused environmental degradation- used quotes from the bible stating that humans have dominion over the world. His reasoning was weak because he used the Aswan Dam as an example, and they were muslims.
What was the significance of Paul Ehrlich's book the population bomb? What controversies did it stir? He stated that since the population was rising so fast, agriculture would not be able to su[[prt everyone. He has extremist ideas of childbirth limits and punishments.
What were Garret Hardin's 4 main conclusion in his article The Tragedy of the Commons? Freedoms in the commons brings ruin to all.
No technical solution, only a social solution.
Only coercive controls will work.
Only the state or privatization can solve the problem.
What did Hardin fail to recognize in The Tragedy of the Commons? He did not give technical solutions; said to basically not give aid to 3rd world countries
What is deep ecology vs shallow ecology? Deep ecology is more about politics while shallow is simple conservation efforts. Deep leads people to a higher order of thinking.
What is ecosophy? Ecology + Philosophy
Why are federal lands concentrated in the Western US? because the est was settled first so thatland got divided up during colonization- king was allocating land. Colonies allocated land- mostly private or state now. All of the W purchases opened up lots of land, so not taken yet
List 4 reasons the US gov was interested in western expansion after the Revolutionary War. Pay off debt;
Passage of the Pacific;
Economic gain;
Spread democracy
List 3 major sources of federal land following the Revolutionary War. Louisianna Purchase;
Florida Treaty;
Texas Annexation
List two ways federal lands were acquired. Purchased;
won in war
What is the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Public Land Survey System- how to subdivide land
List three comparisons between the PLSS and metes and bounds systems. Metes used natural boundaries, while PLSS used man-made markers (stakes);
There were more land disputes with metes since natural thing can change over time (rivers change);
PLSS was more organized, grid-like
Describe how PLSS surveys were conducted. They used chains/links to measure length, natural resources were recorded, type markers were noted
List 2 reasons why the federal government wanted to privatize public lands Revenue for government;
Many settlers anxious for opportunity to settle new areas
Describe two typical disbursements of federal land Grants to state- land for agricultural colleges;
Grants to industry- railroads
Why is land currently owned by the federal government typically of poor quality? The public grabbed the land with the best quality first, so the government was left with the undesirable land.
Compare the philosophies of preservation and conservation?? Preservation: Nature as a source of spiritual enlightenment (reverence for the natural world)
Conservation: Sensible, careful, wise use of natural resources
List two reasons the U.S. shifted from privatizing public land to preserving it. Land fraud;
Overuse of resources
List three major important events in the conservation movement. Congress creates Yellowstone National Park;
Congress passes first law to regulate hunting of seals;
Transcontinental railroad was built
Who designed Central Park in New York City?? Frederick Law Olmstead
Why was there public demand to preserve Niagara Falls? Public access was limited and industrialization was taking over the area
Describe the origination of two environmental federal agencies still in existence today. The US Forest Service was originally the Federal Division of Forestry- assessed condition of forests
Describe the origination of two environmental federal agencies still in existence today. US Bureau of Reclamation was created to oversee water resource management in the west
What did Pinchot and T. Roosevelt accomplish during Roosevelt’s presidency? “Midnight Reserves”- 32 forest reserves created in 2 days
What power does the Antiquities Act give to Presidents? Presidents were given the right to rescind public use of land- make national monuments
Describe the arguments for damming Hetch Hetchy Valley. For: Simplicity, low cost of construction, pristine water source
Describe the arguments against damming Hetch Hetchy Valley. Against: Its beautiful. Should’ve argued economics and politics
How does the city of San Francisco benefit today from the dam in Hetch Hetchy? Make $38 million a year from power sales
Name two ecological causes of the dust bowl. Ecological cause: Plowing removed soil protection. When crops stopped growing, grasses couldn’t re-establish
Name two social/political causes of the dust bowl. Social: US government had encouraged cultivation and settling because of war costs. WW! increased food costs, farming was more profitable

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