Pharamacology for Nurses chapter 13 Drugs affecting the ANS

Central Nervous System – made up of the brain and the spinal cord – recieves and processes information; intiates actions
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System? – consists of all the nervous tissue outside the CNS; including sensory and motor neurons
Sensory Neurons -carry signals to the CNS from the sensory organs – part of the PNS
Motor Neurons – part of the PNS – carry signalsfrom the CNS that control the activities of muscles and glands
What is the Somatic Nervous System? – part of the PNS – controls voluntarty movements by activating skeletal muscles
What is the Autonomic Nervous System? -part of the PNS – controls involuntary response by influencing organs, glands, and smooth muscle -divided into the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division -balances the two autonomic branches to maintain homeostasis
What makes up the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)? – Parasympathetic division (rest and digest) – Sympathetic division (fight or flight)
Sympathetic Division – part of the PNS and the ANS – activated under conditions of stress and produces a set of actions called the flight or fight response – causes the the HR and BP to increase & shunts more blood to the skeletal muscles
Parasympathetic Division – rest and digest – directs maintenance activities part of the PNS and the ANS
What receptors make up the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)? Cholinergic Receptors
What receptors make up the Sympathetic Division of the Autonomic Nervous System? Adrenergic Receptors
What are the two types of basic Adrenergic Receptors? -Alpha and Beta -they are further divided into the subtypes: alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2 – activation of each recpetor subtye results in a characteristic set of physiologic responses
What body fuctions does the Parasympathetic division effect? 1. Constricts Pupils 2. Stimulates salivation 3. Slows heart 4. Constricts bronchioles 5. Stimulates digestion 6. Stimulates gallbladder 7. Contracts bladder 8. Stimulates sex organs
What body functions does the Sympathetic Division effect? – 1. Dilates Pupils 2. Inhibits salivation 3. Accelerates heart 4. Dilates bronchioles 5. Inhibits digestion 6. Stimulates the release of glucose 7. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 8. Relaxes the bladder 9. Inhibits sex organs
Synapse – A juncture between two neurons
Ganglionic Synapse – a synapse taht occurs outside fo the CNS
Preganglionic Neuron – a nerve carrying the impulse exitiong the impulse
Postganglionic Neuron – a nerveon the other side of the ganglionic synapse, waiting to recieve the impulse
What are the two primary transmitters of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)? -norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (Ach)
What neurotransmitter is usually released at all postganglionic nerves in the sympathetic nervous system? – norepinephrine – the exception is sweat glands which produce acetylcholine
Natural Catecholamines – include epinephrine (adrenalin) and dopamine
Alpha 1 Receptor -Norepinephrine (adrenergic) = neurotransmitter – primary location is all sympathetic target rgans except the heart -causes the constricion of blood vessels and dilation of pupils
Alpha 2 Receptor – Norepinephrine(adrenergic)+ neurtransmitter – primary location is the presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminal – reponses include the inhibition of release of norepinephrine
Beta 1 Receptor -norepinephrine (adrenergic) + neurotransmitter – primary locations include the heart and kidneys -Responses include increased HR and force of contraction, and release of renin
Beta 2 Receptor -Norepinephrine (adrenergic) = neurotransmitter – Locations include all sympathetic target organs except the heart – Response include inhibition of smooth muscle
Nicotinic Receptor -Acetylcholine (cholinergic)= neurotransmitter – Primary locations include postganglionic neurons – Responses include stimulation of the smooth muscle and gland secretions
Muscarinic Receptor -Acetylcholine (cholinergic)= neurotransmitter -primary locations: heart & other organs for the parasympathetic division only -responses: decreasing the HR & force of contraction & for the parasympathetic it stimulates smooth muscle & gland secretions
What is the therapeutic use for ganglionic blockers? -muscle relaxation during surgical procedures – orginally used to treate HTN
Sympathomimetics -also called adrenergic agents -stimulate the sympathetic nervous system -produce the classic symptoms of the fight-or-flight response
What natural or synthetic agents produce a sympathomimetic response? – catecholamines and noncatecholamines
Adrenergic antagonists – inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system – produce actions opposite those of the sympathomimetics – also called sympatholytics
Parasympathomimetics -stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system – also called cholinergic agents -produce the charateristic symptoms of the rest and digest response
How are catecholamines administered? How long is is it's duration of action? -must be administered parenterally and have a short duration of action
How are noncatecholamines administered and how long is it's duration of action? – can be taken orally and have a longer duration of action compared to catecholamines because they are not destroyed monoamine oxidase
Sympathomimetics can act either directly or indirectly. Describe how they act directly and list examples. -Ones that act directly bind to and activates adrenergic receptors -examples include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
What are examples of sympathomimetics that act indirectly on the receptors? – amphetamines or cocaine
What are the two major divisions of the nervous system? 1. Central nervous system (CNS) 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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