Science Vocab

Term Definition
Cell Membrane The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cell Wall A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.
Chloroplasts A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chromosomes Noun
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells.
Cytoplasm The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane.
Golgi Bodies a netlike structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells
Mitochondria An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Nuclear Membrane The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell.
Nucleus The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth.
Ribosomes A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells.
Vacuole A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
Prokaryote Makes its own energy
Eukaryote Gets its energy from other organisms
Mitosis A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each the same as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Meiosis A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell.
Monomer A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
Polymer A substance that has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar units bonded together
Carbohydrates Any of the group of organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids Noun
Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water
Proteins Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids
Nucleic Acids A complex organic substance present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.

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