SLS Bio12 Biomolecules (JW)

Term Definition
Acid Molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower its pH numerically
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) A nucleotide, CHPON, present in, and vital to the energy processes of, all living cells
Amino Acid Monomer of a protein; takes its name from the fact that it contains an amino group (-NH2) and an acid group (-COOH)
Base Molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise the pH numerically
Buffer Substance or group of substances that tend to resist Ph changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity.
Carbohydrate Class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of CH2O groups; includes monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides
Complementary Base Pairing Hydrogen bonding between particular bases; in DNA, thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A), and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C); in RNA, uracil (U) pairs with A, and G pairs with C
Dehydration Synthesis A dehydration synthesis reaction is the building of something while getting rid of water; whereby, an hydrogen from a carbohydrate, and an hydroxyl (OH) compound from another compound are taken to form water
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function
Dipeptide A peptide composed of two amino-acid residues, joined by a peptide bond
Disaccharide Sugar that contains units of a monosaccharide; e.g., maltose
Double Helix Double spiral; describes the three-dimensional shape of DNA
Hemoglobin Iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that combines with and transports oxygen
Hydrogen Bonding Weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between parts of the same molecule
Hydrolysis Splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in the othe
Lipid Organic compound that is insoluble in water; notably fats, oils, and steroids
Monomer Small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer, e.g., glucose is a monomer of starch
Monosaccharide Simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis
Neutral Fat eutral fats are neutral because they are uncharged and do not contain acidic or basic groups. They are nonpolar and hydrophobic.
They are often found in the thigh and torso area of the body where it provides insulation to keep warm and body fuel reserves
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are biological polymers made from nucleotide monomers.
Nucleoide Monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogen-containing base and a phosphate group
Organic Molecule that always contains carbon and hydrogen and often oxygen; organic molecules are associated with living things
Peptide Bond Covalent Bond that joins two amino acids
pH pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Phospholipid Molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell's membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded to two nonpolar, hydrophobic
Polarity Refers to a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment
Polymer Macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers; for example, a polypeptide is a polymer of monomers called amino acids
Polypeptide Polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Polysaccharide Polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers
Primary Structure The characteristic sequence of amino acids forming a protein or polypeptide chain, considered as the most basic element of its structure
Protein Organic molecules that is composed of either one or several polypeptides
Quaternary Structure A structural level wherein several proteins (or polypeptide subunits) interact through non-covalent bonds to form one functional protein complex
R-Group Abbreviation given to an unimportant part of a molecule. Indicates rest of molecule
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid: a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded (double stranded in some viruses) and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell
Saturated Fatty Acid A fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; found chiefly in animal fats
Secondary Structure A structure of a biological molecule characterized by the local folding within the biopolymer as a result of hydrogen bonding (within the biopolymer)
Solvent The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Starch A polysaccharide carbohydrate (C6H10O5)n consisting of a large number of glucose monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds found especially in seeds, bulbs, and tuber
Steroid A lipid-base hormone which are related to the four-ring structure of cholesterol separated by their functional groups or side goups
Tertiary Structure A structure of a biological molecule (such as proteins and nucleic acids) which is in its three dimensional shape, as defined by the atomic coordinates
Unsaturated Fatty Acid A fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms
Nitrogenous Base Nitrogen-bearing compound with chemical properties of a base

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