Question Answer
Use of physical punishment varies across different ________ in terms of type and amount. In _______ they do beating more than smacking countries, Egypt
In New Zealand what aged children find it most acceptable to use physical punishments? 6-10 years old
What is the difference between European, Maori and Pacific Islanders acceptance of physical punishment? Europeans find it most acceptable when children are younger but then when children are getting older in teen years, Maori and Pacific Islanders start to find it slightly more acceptable than Europeans.
What type of physical punishment is the most accepted? Smacking
What can we say about New Zealands rate of physical punishment by parents? That most New Zealand parents have smacked or physically punished their children at one time or other and that half of NZ parents smack their children at least one a week
What can we say about Germany and UK in relation to physical punishment on children? Germany and the UK both think that children have the right not to be physically punished, to a non-violent upbringing. But even though they have these attitudes children are still abused
Europeans find physical punishment more accepting than Maori and Pacific Islanders when children are older, in teen years. True of False? False, Maori and Pacific Islanders find it more accepting when they are older than Europeans
In the UK and Germany the attitude is that children should not be abused but in some other countries their attitude is….. that children should be physically abused
What were the laws about husbands abuse of wives in early years? Husband had the right over their wives, and were by law, allowed use reasonable physical punishment as a means of asserting their authority and maintaining appropriate behaviour (was a rule of thumb-not necessarily applied in all situations)
Who has the right to not be abused (in New Zealand) and who doesn't and why is this crazy? Adults, wives, husbands, students, employees BUT not children, This is crazy because children are the most vulnerable group because they have no political power and no voice.
What does UNCROC stand for? United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
What does the UNCROC think about physical punishment on children and what were their concerns about New Zealand's child punishment. How did New Zealand deal with these concerns? They think its bad. They were concerned that New Zealand had not reviewed section 59 (concerns the right to use physical force on child) in 2003. In 2005 it was reviewed, in 2007 Green party sponsored bill to make smacking illegal.
What the controversy with the new bill making smacking illegal in NZ? Lots of parents felt that they should have the right to smack their child because it helps the parents correct their child's behaviour
How many other countries have also abolished physical punishment of children? 15
What do Family First think about this new law on smacking in New Zealand? Thinks that smacking children should be legal/allowed.
Why are children the most vulnerable group when it comes to not having right to being abused? Because they have no poltiical power and no voice
What statistics did Family First pull out to back up their thought that smacking should be allowed? Only 12% of parents think law change has made dif. to child abuse, half parents discipline has declined cos harder to discipline children now, 81% parent wouldn't report smacking anyway, 56% smacked since law & 66% would continue, only 29% like law
What are the reasons that parents use physical punishment? It reduces unwanted behaviour, is easy to use, it works if used sparingly, when warrented (according to Family First)
How many parties voted for the referendum/bill for child smacking to become illegal? And how many parents agree? All parties and only 29% agreed with the law
In the video what does the lady in government argue how we should be looking at this situation? She argues that we should be using reason not emotion to decide. So agrees smacking should be allowed because there are good reasons behind it.
Gershoff did a meta-analysis of 88 studies look at different ways of defining punishment and then looked at how they affect children and then adults later in life. What did they find about effects on children? Only some studies found immediate compliance (after 5 seconds), but most studies found less moral internalization, more aggression and delinquency, worse parent-child relationship, worse mental health, more likely to be victim of physical abuse.
Gershoff did a meta-analysis of 88 studies look at different ways of defining punishment and then looked at how they affect children and then adults later in life. Why did they find about about the effect on adults later in life? That adult who were physically punished as children were more aggressive, have mental health issues and abuse their own children or partner. BUT was not significant effect for them being more likely to be criminal or do antisocial behaviour
Another meta-analysis by Paolucci and Violato looked at __________ outcomes, _________ outcomes and ___________ outcomes. Write out these outcomes. What did they find? That thee are more affective and behavioural outcomes but overall results are not that significant (and almost no effect for cognitive outcomes)
What did Gershoff's (2002) meta-analysis stem and plot of correlations show? That there are far more undesirable outcomes of physical punishment than desirable/positive outcomes. And that most of the positive outcomes are immediate compliance
What did a study find out about the effect of HARSH corporal punishment on the brain? 15 – 19% reduction in grey matter volume in frontal areas at 18 to 25 years which resulted in decline in IQ scores
What are the outcomes of smacking a child more than twice a month at age __? 3, child is more aggressive at age 5, child is more likely to be psychologically and physically maltreated, neglect, depression, substance abuse, consideration of abortion and intimate partner aggression victimisation stress (whatever that is)
After controlling for al variable other than aggression (i.e. depression, physical and psychological maltreatment, neglect) what did they find? Mothers who smack children more than 2 times a month were 1.40 times more likely to have a child with higher aggression at age 5 compared to mothers who smacked 2 times or less per month
Who uses Physical punishment? (What type of parental characteristics do parents who use physical punishment have?) (5 things) Parents who are less likely to play, read to or hug child, have higher stress level, have more marital problems including physical abuse, have higher rates of substance abuse and mental illness and lower levels of parental quality of involvement.
If we look at who abuses more in New Zealand we find that _______ abuse more and __________ abuse less. What are the statistics that go along with this? Maori, Europeans, 22% of Maori in population under 20 and 52% of them are taken into care after abuse, while 71% of europeans under 20 and only 39% are taken into care after abuse
Why is physical punishment more of an issue among Maori? (what did the australian study say?) That its due to systematic racism, application of white, middle-class European standards and values to indigenous communities, inter-generational fragmentation of family and community structure and poverty
Maori are also overrepresented in the number of people…..? living in poverty
What does poverty do to families? It creates stress about how to feed children, how to pay rent and this stress enhances abuse of children. It also creates lack of ambition (hopelessness) and knowledge of how to escape the cycle because of lack of education and job ladder)
The effects of physical punishment on children might be moderated by parental warmth. Why do we think this? Because most detrimental effects of physical punishment are when parents warmth is not high, and because the use of physical punishment are strongly negatively associated with parental warmth
What is the idea behind children perception of physical abuse that influences it effects on the child? That maybe if children see it as being bad so think there is something wrong with them that they are deserving of it if they get it, but if child and mother thinks its normal then this moderates the effects of anxiety and aggression,
That maybe if children see it as being bad so think there is something wrong with them that they are deserving of it if they get it, but if child and mother thinks its normal then this moderates the effects of anxiety and aggression…BUT? It still increases in child aggression and anxiety in countries where physical abuse is common. Dont understand this, ask someone!!
What is the relationship between shooting fatalities and school corporal punishment? There are more shooting fatalities at school (school shootings) in places where physical corporal punishment is allowed (U.S) even when poverty and conservative religions are controlled for.
What did Ted summarise about Corporal Punishment? = that it teaches children to _______, hurts children, does't show them ______ to do, makes them feel ____ about themselves and feel _____ towards others, and they experience it as ____ from adults. violence, WHAT, bad, angry, anger
Why do children who are abused end up being more aggressive? Because this physical punishment teaches them to use violence. It doesn't show them WHAT to do. They have been smacked for doing something wrong but are not TAUGHT what to do, so smacking doesn't teach them appropriate behaviour
Children experience physical punishment as _______ from parents. Instead of physical punishment children should be taught about feelings and how what they have done wrong effects the other child anger
Some people think that not giving physical punishment is being permissive (allowing too much freedom of behaviour). What does Ted think? He does not think this. It is possible to exert control and set limits without physical pain
It is possible to exert control and set limits without causing ________ _______ physical pain
What message is being given to children when parents are 5-6 times more likely to pay attention if they misbehave and teachers spend more time with misbehaving kids? That if the child misbehaves then they get some interaction so is rewarding for them
Alternatives to physical punishment are ________ methods that include ex______ & child involvement…..? induction, explanation, involvement in setting goals and consequences

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