Social Origins of Behaviour

Question Answer
Theories such as Piaget's and the Information processing only focused on what? The individual – operating independently from others in the world
What dont theories such as Piaget's and Information processing theory focus on? Social factors, the impact of other people on child
Children do not grow up by themselves, instead…? They grow up with people around them
Recently what has been found to be important to development? Context such as the domain of a task (knowledge), features of the task
But theories that look at context are still not focusing on what? Other people and how they influence the chid. They interpersonal context – the efforts of the child and the efforts of other people assisting the child
Much of learning takes place in activities that…. are NOT explicitly designed for instruction
What did Vygotsky see as being the main focus of development? And what did he think was the ideal social influence? Social influence, The ideal social influence is when the child's social partner is slightly more advanced than themselves.
What does Vygotsky mean by the zone of proximal development? (what does it mean) the distance between independent problem solving ability (ability to problem solve on their own) and their ability to problem solve with the help of other people
The idea with the zone of proximal development is that cognitive change will only occur if interactions are….? within this zone
So what type of interactions are going to be helpful to the child, benefit the child? Interactions that are within the zone of proximal development – distance between ability to solve by yourself and ability to solve with help of others.
In terms of zone of proximal development, If you are going to help someone what are you going to do? Your going to pitch your teaching at a level that child will understand & benefit from because children will participate in activities that are slightly beyond their present level of competence & they are assisted by more skilled peers, adults and sibling
To help someone you are going to pitch your teaching at a level that the child will understand and benefit from. Why do you do this? Because the child will then participate in activities that are slightly beyond their present level of competence.
Being assisted by older or more skilled peers, adults and siblings helps children how? Because they will participate in activities that are slightly beyond their own level of competence – this helps them and benefits them because its within their zone of proximal development
What are the two things that more recent theories (after Vygotsky) had talked about? The child being an apprentice – emphasises that children are active in efforts to learn by observing and participating with more skill peers and others. And guided participation which happens in the zone and is called scaffolding
What is guided participation called when it happens within the zone of proximal development? Scaffolding
Scaffolding is when you provide kids with….? a little bit of help and get them to focus on the important things in the task so that next time they know what to focus on.
Scaffolding involves building bridges from ……? (a) and (b) current levels of understanding to new levels through structuring children's participation in activities and (b) providing children with more responsibility for task with time
What example of scaffolding does Ted use in lecture? Social referencing (visual cliff) which is an example of this early predisposition and parental sensitivity
What experiment is commonly used to describe social referencing and why is social referencing an example of scaffolding? The visual cliff task: if the mother looks fearful the baby wont cross the cliff but if mother looks happy and smiles the baby will cross the cliff. This is scaffolding because the mother is providing chil with information which changes their behaviour.
When you are dealing with children are you always scaffolding or just sometimes? Always because you are always providing them with information
People who believe in scaffolding have emphasised children as a______ a_______ active agents
Basically the child or baby being an active agent refers to the way they act when they want something done which is…? the baby communicates that they want something done and the adult responds by showing the baby how it is done – the child does not just sit there, they will try to do things (giving them information, showing them whats important in task)
What are the two experimental example that show children being active agents? Rheingold saw 18-30 month olds spontaneously try to help parents or stranger in chores, Carew found that 82% of toddlers interactions at home were initiated by toddlers (adults fit assistance into children's interests
So in order to interact with the child you dont have to interact or guide them first, because they are guiding you first most of the time TRUE OF FALSE? True
Another example of guided participation is when mothers raise the ____ (demands more from the child) which causes the child's development to….? improve.
Instead of yawning the baby now has to babble because the mother demands more from the child. If the baby wants something they now have to…? Babble instead of yawning or some less skilled sound.
Relationships with parents, and siblings and peers are particularly good for development. Why is this? (there are four reasons) because they know each others strengths and weaknesses, because their relationship is already established from birth so social demand is reduced, can get on with task, more open and honest with friends, can tolerate criticism more
When children are older who do they spend more time with? Peers than adults and siblings
An example of child being active agent is study by Carew. How many toddlers interactions were initiated by the toddler? 82% – the adult fits their assistance into the children's interests.
When children are younger who do they spend more time with? Adults and siblings than peers
Why do different people influence children over time? Because when children are younger they spend more time with adults and siblings and when children are older they spend more time with peers
Young children observe and imitate who? more than older children imitate who? Young children observe and imitate older siblings and older peers more than older children imitate younger siblings and peers
Who initiates direct interaction more? (older siblings and peers or younger siblings and peers)? Older siblings and peers
What is the difference between adults and older children who help young children? These older children dont always relinquish control (dont give young child more responsibility in task over time). They have to be prompted by child to relinquish task
What some researchers did is they had triads of children (one __ year old and two __ year olds (one was an older sibling and one was an older ____)). These triads were same-sex or not? There were two phases what were they called and what did they involve? 7, 9. peer/friend, yes same-sex triads, unstructured and structured phase. The unstructured phase: older kids not told to explicitly help younger kid build car. Structured phase: one older kid leaves and other older kid is told to help young kid build car
In the triad (young child, older sibling, older peer) experiment what were the results? And what can we conclude overall? Young children looked,asked questions/made requests,& imitated older siblings more in both structured&unstructured phases & older siblings responded/helped young child more than older peers. Conclude that young child are more successful with older sibling
Pottest did study where older siblings and peers taught younger child to build a windmill. What were the results? Younger child did better when older sibling taught them than when older peer taught them – 54% got it correct when taught by older sibling while only 45% got it correct when taught by older peer.
What did Vygotsky say that effective guidance required? That effective guidance requires a teacher who gradually relinquishes control.
In terms of relinquishing control, what do older children (siblings and peers) do? unless what? They dont relinquish control (give more responsibility to young child) unless the young child prompts them to do so
Who are young children more likely to prompt to get that person to relinquish control in task? Their older sibling rather than older peer
Nelson & Aboud looked at childrens opinions about things. Participants were 8 to 9 years old and were asked question "what is the thing to do if a boy or girl much smaller than you (boy or girl) starts to fight you? Then what happened in the experiment? They got the children to discuss their thought, answers with either a friend or a non friend and then asked question again to see what there answer is now.
In experiment where they asked children what they would do if a child much smaller than themselves started to fight them, how did they code their answers 1-7 where 1 indicated "hit him/her" and 7 indicated "walk away"
In experiment where they asked children what they would do if a child much smaller than themselves started to fight them, what were the results? When child discussed w/ friend there were more explanations & criticisms AND when they discussed with friend change tend to be positive (towards"walk away") and is larger change than when talking to nonfriend. & if the score's initiially high=small change
Gradually relinquishing control allows for….? And who said this? allows for effective guidance, Vygotsly
Why do children who are friends criticism each others opinion more than children who are not friends and therefore make more explanations? Because their friendship is robust enough and there are less social demands so they can just get on with the task.
Who facilitates a child understanding of false belief (about other people)? What does this relate to? Older siblings and parents, theory of mind
Describe false belief task and what aged children get it wrong and what aged children get it right? Children are presented with a video of someone called Sam who puts cheese in a red box to have later. Then they see a girl taking the cheese and putting it in a blue box to have later. You ask child "where will Sam look for the cheese?" 3 wrong, 4 right
In false belief task the 3 year old thinks that….? Because they know where the cheese is, that everyone will know where the cheese is including Sam.
Researcher (Ted) added on to this false belief task study and did what? Looked at whether older siblings influence their false belief. Found that the more older siblings you have the better the child does and that amount of younger siblings had no effect
What exactly is the older sibling doing to cause the younger sibling to do better in false belief task, to get Theory of Mind easier? There are three possibilities (1)assistance-older sibling constantly assist younger sibling cos younger sibling constantly asks questions (2) pretence – can role play with siblings which incr. false belief (3) talk-talk more about internal states more w/ sibling than mum "I want it!"
What do older siblings facilitate? False belief understanding
In study looking at Mother talk and child mental states what does the mother describe? And what do they use in their descriptions? And what does this do to children's mental states? Describe pictures (another baby having bath), uses mental state terms in description ("He doesn't like his bath" or he's thinking hard"), this facilitates child's later theory of mind understanding
Study where mother talk includes mental states had results that showed two significant things? That there were correlations between mother talk about mental states and child's later understanding of ToM (better at false belief task) and child's mental state utterances later on.
Mother talk about mental states does what? improves child's understanding of theory of mind (false belief task, other peoples mental states) and child makes more mental state utterances later on.
Why do we know that baby's mental state utterances and baby's understanding of ToM (shown by performance in false belief task) dont cause mothers mental state utterances? Because these correlations were not significant.
In what task does the child have to reason about another person and about what another person thinks? False Belief task
What is the best type of mother talk at 15 months? And what is the best type of mother talk at 24 months? At 15 months mental state talk about the babies own desires are better because this causes them to have ToM at 24 months. Then at 24 months mental states talk about others thoughts and knowledge is best as this causes improvement in ToM at 33 months.
All types of mother talk are pretty steady across time (desire, emotion) except for what mental state talk? (this one is changing, increasing) Thought/Knowledge
Babies talk about desires and emotions increases over time starting at 15 months. How doe babies talk about thought and knowledge differ? This though and knowledge talk/understanding is very steady, from 15 months but then does huge increase from 24 months
By how many months can the baby talk about all three mental states (emotion, desire and though/knowledge) 33 months
Why does the mother initially only talk to the baby about their own mental states? In other words why is mother talk only about child's desires initially more helpful? Because the baby doesnt understand about other peoples mental states yet, they cant step outside their own experiences and their world is all about asserting their will, their own way. So mother tunes into this and says "Oh you dont want to read book"
Why do mothers change from talking about babies own desires to other peoples thoughts/knowledge? Because mother does what Vygotsky mentioned – teaches child at level slightly above current level, so mother picks up on signs about whether or not child understands.
Until about _ years of age a baby cannot make a distinction between themselves. Which test can you show this in? 2, the mirror test
With the mirror study, what is the most helpful talk for children who do not recognise themselves in the mirror? Mother talk about the babies own desires
With the mirror study what is the most helpful talk for children who do recognise themselves in the mirror? Why is this? Mother talk about others knowledge and thoughts. Because they already understand their own desires so does not help to talk about them anymore so now the mother needs to talk about something different – needs to keep her teaching pitch higher
With the mirror study children who do not recognise themselves are not helped when the mother talks about…? others thought and knowledge
With the mirror study children who do recognise themselves are not helped when the mother talks about…? the babies own desires
With the mirror study why do children who do recognise themselves in mirror, now find it helpful for mother to talk about thoughts and knowledge and not about the babies own desires? Because the baby now already understand there own desires – that they are different to other people, so they now need to learn something more difficult
So different types of mother talk are effective over ____________ levels of development different
Mothers adjust their talks according to the child's __________ level current
Family size is now ___________ smaller
Family size is now smaller. In 1971 the percentage of families with 1 child was only ___% and in 1991 the percentage with 1 child increased to __%. In US ____ of kids under six are only children and in China __% are only child in 1991 33%, 40%, 1/2, 95%.
What is the effect of being an only child? This increase in parental attention boosts IQ
What did the Norway study look at and find? Looked at heaps of men in Norwegian armed forces at who had older siblings who had died, or two older siblings that had dies. Found that the more older siblings you have the less your IQ. And if one of your siblings dies your IQ shoots up
If you have 2 older siblings your IQ is around 99 but if one of your siblings dies what happens to your IQ? It shoots up to 100 – the same level as men who only had one sibling.
Basically older siblings are bad for your …? IQ
With the mirror study children who do not recognise themselves are helped if mother talks about others thought and knowledge. True of false? False
Other research shows that only children have better _______ and ________ skills and are more likely to go to ________? verbal, creative, collage
There are advantages of being an only child relative to families of 4 or more even when ______ is taken into account SES
This advantage is true for Chine, North America and ________ Europe
So are there disadvantages of being an only child? Some would say yes (because you would be worse at understanding ToM and some would say no (because you would be worse in IQ etc.
With the mirror study children who do recognise themselves are helped if mother talks about the babies own desires. True of false? False
How do parents teach children in Western cultures? Tend to teach directly but imitation still has a massive effect
How do parents in developing cultures teach their children? Parents model behaviour and kids imitate
What did Albert Bandura argue? That personality is formed through what we learn from imitating others – so what we learn socially from imitation
What two things did Alberta Bandura think was key in development of personality? observation and imitation
In video shown in class of children playing, at an early age they mainly do a lot of ______________ instead of actually playing together observation
Parents from what culture (western or developing) are more active in their teaching? Western because Developing parents just model
What did Alberta Bandura say was the main way that personality is formed? Through imitation
Describe Alberta Bandura most well known experiment to do with imitation and observation Children were shown video of adult ordering Bobo doll out of the way and then punching it and hitting it with mullet and kicking it. Half kids then watch adult being punished and half dont. Then all kids left alone with Bobo doll.
What were the results from Alberta Bandura bobo study? Children who did not see punishment of adult imitated the aggressive actions more and people who did view the punishment were more passive, tended t imitate less
What else did they find with the Bobo doll study in terms of gender? Boys particularly likely to imitate aggressive models (because of their innate tendencies, testosterone, or because of their social roles) and girls will imitate when model is a girl or when model is rewarded.
Which gender are the effects of this imitation of aggressive acts stronger for? Boys
When you look at children between ages _ and adolescence, boys and girls have how much testosterone? What does this mean? 1, no, means that if theres an effect on testosterone in their bodies, it must be occurring much earlier – when the boy is in mothers womb in first trimester

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