Question Answer
When and where did sociology develop? Sociology developed in Western Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries.
How did sociology develop? Political and economic systems were changing rapidly, which allowed room for science and law. All societies started connecting, and the time was ripe for new understanding.
Enlightenment period The age of reason which was characterized by faith in humans to solve society's problems. This belief was linked to modern science.
Positivism System of thought in which accurate observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge.
What expanded by using the idea of positivism? The scientific method.
What are three main ideals in the period of enlightenment? Faith in human reason, positivism, and humanitarianism.
What are 3 major theoretical perspectives of micro/macro analysis? The Functionalism, Conflict, and Symbolic Interaction theories
What is the main idea of the functionalism theory? Interprets each part of society as contributing to the stability of a whole. Promotes the idea that each component of society is dependent on each other.
Who created the functionalism theory? Emile Durkheim
Is the idea of functionalism macro or micro? Macro
Who added to functionalism that if one part of society malfunctioned, the other parts would quickly even things out? Talcott Parsons
What were Robert Merton's ideas? That some consequences to controlled changes in society were intended and apparent while some weren't intended nor immediately apparent.
What are intended goals called? Manifest functions
What are the unintended goals called? Latent functions
Who created the Conflict theory? Karl Marx
What is the Conflict theory? Society is composed of fragmented groups, competing for social and economical resources. Social order is maintained by dominance. And when people are in agreement, they are grouped and opposing something else.
What are the strongest things about the Conflict Theory? It emphasizes class, race, gender inequality and their influence on social life.
Is conflict theory micro or macro? Macro
Who created the Symbolic Interaction Theory? It was the work of the Chicago school.
What is the Symbolic Interaction Theory? Considers immediate social interaction to be the place where society exists. Focuses on face-to-face contact. Society is constructed through human interpretation
Is SI theory micro or macro? Micro, since it zeroes in on parts of society.
What was Erving Goffman's main idea? People present themselves by giving off impressions that consist of the current situation.
3 main ideas of Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) People are glued together by belief systems. Deviants help create a sense of normalcy among others. Society is external, yet people internalize it.
What was Durkheim's strongest contribution? Social basis of human behavior. Social facts may include that one group may be more likely to commit suicide than another.
Which of the 3 theories was Durkheim's work a basis for? Functionalism
Ideas of Karl Marx Economic forces and capitalism shaped society. "The rich get richer". Capitalists make a huge profit while under-paying their working employees.
How does the capitalist class affect society? They control both production of goods and ideas. They control part of the media and they endow universities.
Weber's main ideas? society has 3 dimensions, verstehen, and social action.
What were those 3 dimensions? Political, economical, and cultural
What's verstehen? Understanding social behavior from the perspective of being engaged in it.
Social Action? People give meaning when they see certain types of behavior
Who is the founder of sociology? COMTE! (1798-1857)
What ideas did Comte contribute? Created the term "sociology". Believed that if science discovered the laws of nature, it could discover the law of human social behavior.
What did Comte use for the basis of his research? Positivism
What did Cooley help develop? Developed peoples' understanding of how they perceive others.
Goffman's main ideas? Created symbolic interaction theory. He saw society as a stage. People are the actors in how they present themselves to others, giving off impressions that are consistent to the situation and people.
Merton's main ideas? What did he help develop? He helped further developing functionalism. He created manifest and latent theories.

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