Sociology – Exam 1 – Part 1 – Perspective, Theory, and Method

Question Answer
systematic study of human society Sociology
Founder of sociology Auguste Comte
Coined term “sociology” Auguste Comte
scientific approach to knowledge based on facts as opposed to speculation. Positivism
statement of how & why specific facts are related Theory
close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations Micro
broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole Macro
Structural-Functional people Comte, Durkheim & Robert Merton
Structural-Functional macro or micro macro
Society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability Structural-Functional
function solidarity cohesion
stable/stability unity
Structural-Functional key words
consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole Social functions
Concept of Social functions developed by Robert Merton
Manifest function intended
Latent function unintended
Social dysfunction disrupts the operation of society
Social Conflict macro or micro macro
Social Conflict concept developed by Karl Marx
Society is an arena of inequality that generates conflict & change Social Conflict
conflict, inequality, power, class struggle, change Social Conflict key words
Social Conflict person other than Marx W.E.B. DuBois
Symbolic interaction macro or micro micro
Symbolic interaction people Max Weber, Charles Horton Cooley, & George Herbert Mead
Society is the product of everyday interactions of individuals Symbolic interaction
everyday interactions, individuals, small groups, symbols Symbolic interaction key words
Symbols and meanings are social constructs
Three Ways to Do Sociology Positivist, Interpretive, Critical
based on systematic observation of social behavior Positivist
information we can verify Empirical evidence
mental construct that represents some part of the world concept
concept whose value changes from case to case variable
determining the value of a variable in a specific case. Measurement
consistency in measurement Reliability
actually measuring what you intend Validity
relationship in which 2 or more variables change together Correlation
Cause and effect variables Independent variable – cause
Dependent variable – effect
focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world. Interpretive
focuses on the need for social change. Critical
investigates cause and effect under highly controlled conditions Experiment
systematic plan for doing research. Research Methods
systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities. Participant observation
4 Research Methods: Experiment, Participant observation, Using available data, Survey
subjects respond to a series of statements or questions Survey
Sociology Ethics Do no harm, Fair-minded, Disclose all findings
Sociological perspective Taking a broader view
Seeing general patterns in the behavior of particular people.
Studied unemployment C. Wright Mills
Emile Durkheim's goal sociology recognized as academic discipline.
studied Suicide Emile Durkheim
sociological keys to suicidal tendancies Autonomy, Social integration

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