Sociology – Exam 1 – Part 2 – Culture

Question Answer
Ways of thinking, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life Culture
2 types of Culture Non-Material Culture
Material Culture
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture Society
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life Culture shock
Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture Symbol
system of symbols that allows people to communicate Language
process by which one generation passes culture to the next Cultural Transmission
Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world.
Thinking and perception are shaped by language.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, & beautiful Values
broad guidelines for social living Values
specific ideas people hold to be true Beliefs
rules & expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members Norms
rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to cultural norms Sanctions
norms that are widely observed & have great moral significance Mores or Taboos
norms for casual interaction Folkways
behaviors suggested by values & norms Ideal culture
actual behavior Real culture
pertaining to Material culture
– physical human creations
Artifacts
pertaining to Material culture
– knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
Technology
pertaining to Material culture
– historical changes in culture brought about by new technology
Sociocultural Evolution
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population Subculture
cultural diversity with respect & equal standing for all cultural traditions Multiculturalism
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society Counterculture
relationships among various elements of a cultural system Cultural Integration
some cultural elements change more quickly than others Cultural Lag
practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture Ethnocentrism
practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards Cultural relativism
Pertaining to Theoretical Analysis of Culture – Culture is a complex strategy for meeting human needs Structural-functional
Pertaining to Theoretical Analysis of Culture – Any cultural trait benefits some members of society at the expense of others Social-conflict
negative judgement we put on ourselves guilt

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