Study material for Enviromental Science Ch 4 & 5 test

Question Answer
What is an ecosystem? all organisms living in an area together with physical environment
Where does most of the energy in an ecosystem come from? sun
Habitat a place an organism lives
Niche its role in the community
What is resistance? the ability an organism can tolerate a chemical designed to kill it
Define evolution a change in genetics in a population from one generation to a next.
What is the mechanism for evolution according to Darwin? natural selection
What is coevolution. the process of two species evolving in response to a long term interaction with one another
An example of coevolution Hawaiian honey sipper
What is natural selection? unequal survival and reproduction that result from the presence or absence of a particular trait
Describe the Archaebacteria Kingdom of life? single-celled and found in harsh environments; prokaryotic
Describe the Eubacteria Kingdom of life? single-celled and very common; prokaryotic
Describe the Fungi Kingdom of life? cell walls and most live on land; decomposers, eukaryotic
Describe the Protists Kingdom of life? singel-celled and most live in water; eukaryotic
Describe the Plant Kingdom of life? many cells, make their own food; eukaryotic
Describe the Animal Kingdom of life? many cells, no cell wall and live in land or water; eukaryotic, heterotroph
What converts nitrogen from the air into compounds that plants can use? nitrogen fixing bacteria that live in the root system of legumes
biotic factor living
abiotic factor nonliving
Explain how humans have encouraged resistance by insects to pesticides? By trying to control pest populations with a chemical trying to kill it. Instead, the ones that survive breed other generations that are resistant to the chemical.
Define population. a group of the same species and live and interbreed together
Define community. ecosystem with living and nonliving parts
Why are bacteria and fungi important to the environment? they decompose dying and dead material
What characteristics are shared by bacteria, fungus and plants? cell wall
What two kingdoms are mostly autotrophic? Protista and plants
gymnosperms Evergreens and bear seeds on cones
angiosperms produce flowers and bear seeds in fruit
Construct a Quaternary Food Chain sun, algae, fish, penguins, seals, polar bear
vertebrate with backbones fish amphibians and reptiles.
invertebrates no backbone-corals and worms
What is lichen? It is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae
What is lichen importance in terms of succession? is a pioneer species.
What is a climax community? end result of a succession
What is an herbivore eats plants
How much energy is passed from one trophic level to another? 10 %
What happens to the other 90% of energy in each trophic level? the 90% is used or wasted
What are decomposers? break down dead material
What is a carnivore? consumer eats animals
Where do fossil fuels come from? plants and animals that were buried many years ago under quick pressure
What is a pioneer species original species to colonize an
Examples of Pioneer species lichen and moss
primary succession where life has never existed
secondary succession Succession where there has been previous growth such as abandoned fields
How does fire improve an ecosystem? some seeds can only be released by heat. fire removes brush and deadwood, and some animals feed on the new growth after a fire
If a fire wipes out an entire forest and succession begins again…what type of succession is this? secondary succession
Where would an ecologist go if he/she needed to study a primary succession? volcanoes
List 3 ways that humans affect the Carbon Cycle burning fossil fuels (cars, factories, power plants,clearing trees, burning wood,runoff, and burning fuel at high temperatures.
List 3 ways that humans affect the Nitrogen Cycle fertilizers, agricultural and industrial.
What are consumers? heterotrophs get energy from something else
What are producers? autotrophs make their own food
How do plants play a crucial role in the environment? they release oxygen that other organisms need and they are the beginning of the food chain
Identify producers in an energy pyramid. grass, sea weed, seeds
Identify Primary consumers in an energy pyramid. herbivores eat autotrophs(mouse eats the seeds)
Identify secondary consumers in an energy pyramid. animals that eat herbivores (bird eats the mouse)
Identify tertiary consumers in an energy pyramid. animal that eats the secondary consumer (cat eats the bird)
Identify quaternary consumers in an energy pyramid. animal that eats the tertiary consumer (Hawk eats the cat)
Top predator each food chain ends with a top predator – an animal with no natural enemies ex. polar bear
What is a food web? a complex system of interrelates food chains in an ecosystem
Describe an old field succession plowed field is abandoned, it represents a new habitat for plant and animal species to colonize, but because it is basically bare soil, it is a stressful habitat for many plants. There are no trees to provide shade or to serve as windbreaks.
Example of a population zebras that live in the same area and breed together
Eample of a community a pond
Example of gymnosperms pine tree
Example of angiosperms apple trees
Example of a carnivore Lion, Hawk,Shark
What is a food chain? a succession of organisms that get their energy from eating something else or making it themselves

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