Term Definition
Plasma membrane Outer most part of the cell
Cytoplasm In between the membrane and nucleus
Cytosol Fluid
Organelles Little organs
Cholesterol Keeps it firm
Integral protein Spans the whole plasma membrane
Peripheral protein They are in or out of the membrane
Glycolipid Replaces the head of a lipid that's part of the membrane
Glycoprotein Connected to a protein
Intracellular Inside the cell 2/3 of total
Plasma Water
Simple diffusion Pass across lipid bilayer if lipid soluble or if polar molecules; or through ion channels if ions such as K+, Ca2+, Cl-
Facilitated diffusion Requires a carrier in membrane but not ATP/Solute goes down concentration gradient
Osmosis Diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic Equal amount of concentration and has 0.9% NaCl
Hypotonic Lower concentration and has 0% NaCl
Hypertonic Higher concentration and has 4% NaCl
Active Transport Requires a carrier/Energy(ATP)/Can transport up a concentration gradient
Transport in Vesicles Requires energy(ATP)/Involves small membrane sac
Endocytosis Importing materials in a cell
Phagocytosis Ingestion of particles such as bacteria into white blood cells
Pinocytosis Ingestion of fluid
Exocytosis Exporting materials
Cytoskeleton Skeleton of cell/ Maintains shape of cell/Positions organelles/Changes cell shape/ Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules are in this
Microfilaments Smallest
Intermediate filaments Medium
Microtubules Largest
Centrosome Function: Moves chromosomes to ends of cell during cell division/Structure: Two centrioles arranged perpendicular to each other
Flagellum Single tail like structure on sperm/Propels sperm forward in reproductive tract
Cilia In groups/Found in respiratory system – moves mucus
Ribosomes Made within the nucleus (in nucleolus/Sites of protein synthesis/Can be attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytosol
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure: Network of folded membranes/Functions: Synthesis, intracellular transport
Rough ER Studded with ribosomes (sites of protein synthesis)
Smooth ER Lacks ribosomes/Functions: Lipid synthesis/Release of glucose in liver cells into bloodstream/Drug detoxification/Storage and release of Ca2+ in muscle cells(sarcoplasmic reticulum)
Golgi complex Structure:Flattened membranes (cisterns) with bulging edges (like stacks of pita bread/Functions:Modify proteins ? glycoproteins and lipoproteins that become parts of plasma membrane, stored in lysosomes or exported by exocytosis
Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes
Tay-Sachs Hereditary disorder, one missing lysosomal enzyme leads to nerve destruction
Peroxisomes Detoxify; abundant in liver
Proteasomes Digest unneeded or faulty proteins
Mitochondria Structure: Sausage-shaped with many folded membranes and liquid matrix containing enzymes/Function: Nutrient energy is released and trapped in ATP, "power house of cell", and chemical reactions require oxygen
Protein Synthesis DNA–>RNA–>Protein
Transcription DNA–>RNA
Translation RNA–>Protein
mRNA Messenger RNA and directs synthesis of polypeptide
rRNA Ribosomal RNA and component of ribosomes
tRNA Transfer RNA and carries amino acids to ribosome for reaction
Interphase Period of growth and development of cell, preparation for reproduction: DNA synthesis
DNA synthesis 2 copies of DNA and making more organelles
Mitotic Phase division of nucleus/4 phases – Prophase–>Metaphase–>Anaphase–>Telophase
Cytokinesis Division of cytoplasm equally to both cells
Prophase Chromatin condenses into pairs of chromatids connected at centromeres
Chromatid An arm of a chromosome
Mitotic Spindle Arms that attach to chromosomes
Metaphase Centromeres of chromatid pairs are aligned along microtubules at the center of the metaphase plate
Metaphase plate Right dab in the middle
Anaphase Centromeres split, separating 'sister chromatids"(chromosomes)
Telophase Chromosomes revert to threadlike chromatin/Nuclear envelope and nucleolus reappear/Mitotic spindle breaks up/Cytokinesis is complete
Telomeres DNA at tips of chromosomes and shorten with aging

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