Theory of Mind

Question Answer
The ability to attribue beliefs, desires, intentions and emotions to the self and others in order to explain and predict behaviour. What is this? Theory of Mind
Even with desire and belief we can still explain most ___________? e.g. ted picks up tissue (desire) because he beliefs it will help with his runny nose behaviour
The term theory if mind was originally used to understand the mind of a…..? chimp
What was the name of the first article on Theory of Mind? Does the Chimp have a theory of mind?"
The theory of mind is like a scientific theory where we have a belief/theory and ______ from this. e.g. chocolate ice-cream example predict
What are the two other names given to Theory of Mind? Mindreading and Folk Psychology
Describe the mindreading name given to ToM? The ability to read what is going on in someone else's mind and to use this to understand why they do things.
With the mindreading name of ToM what are autistic children called? Mind-blind
With the mindreading name of ToM what are mothers who treat their children as being independent mental beings called? Mindminded
What is folk psychology? The idea that we think people have mental states, everyday understanding of the causes of action in the social world.
Talk about how folk psychology is seen in autistic kids? Autistic kids are good at folk physics as they understand what A's effect on B is (everyday understanding of causes of action in the non-social world) and are NOT good at folk psychology (understanding of causes of action (behaviour) in the social world
Folk psychology also says that the ToM is essential to make sense of everyday social interaction and c_________ conversation
3-6 month olds respond differently to depressed mothers. Discuss Babies look away from depressd mums & toward happy mums so seem to pick up on emotion BUT babies with depressd mums also look less at nondepress. woman so havn depress. mum is affectn behav. toward women so dont mean they underst emotion- just respond dif
What signs are there of baby understanding mental state at 6 months? Baby gets annoyed when mothers facial expression does not match her tone. So they understand that facial expression and tone should go together – that if you sound happy you should like happy – so perhaps understand emotion.
What signs are there of babies understanding of mental states at 18 months? If you show them you like broccoli by going 'mmmm i like that' or show them you dont like crackers by going 'ewwwww' and then you put your hands between the two and ask the baby 'can I have some?' So maybe baby at 18 months understands your desires
What study shows that babies have an innate basis for learning about the mind (about mental states)? Study showing baby less than few hours old three paddles-one blank, one with face and one with scramble face & babies looked longer at face(were more interested at normal face). Shows that theres an innate basis because mental states are expressed in face
What does mindminded refer to? The mindreading name of ToM where mothers are seen as being mindminded if they treat their children as being independent mental beings.
What two results did we find from the three paddle study looking at babies innate basis for learning of mental states? That babies less than few hours old like to look at face and at eyes when they are open
What is emotional contagion? When you put a baby into a room with crying babies and baby will start to cry as well
Eyes by themselves are very expressive. They are often referred to as the "_________ ___ _______". You can see all kinds of emotions in just the eyes, so babies are equipped to learn about mental states (to read emotions and infer mental states) window of the mind or sole
What does mind-blind refer to? The mindreading version of ToM where autistic children called mind-blind
Babies are also seem to be set up to learn about feeling. What has made us think this? When a baby is put into a room of crying babies and then start crying themselves (emotional contagion)
Although baby cries when put in room of other babies crying, this dont necessarily mean they understand what going on with crying babys – they might just find crying aversive (just like if put in room with white noise) but ted also says that when you cry you feel upset so when they see babys crying they might understand they must also be upset
How do we know that at 1 year, that babies respond differently to expression of fear? Because they can do social referencing where they are more likely to cross visual cliff when mother looks happy or smiles and less likely to cross visual cliff when mother looks fearful – so they can use and understand emotional signals at 1 year –> ToM.
With babies responding differently to fear in the social referencing task, soes this mean they actually understand about fear? We dont know-might be attributing mental state of fear or might be interpreting mothers behaviour (facial expression) because there is danger
What else other than engaging in social referencing do babies do? They begin to point and follow gaze
What is Protoimperative pointing? Pointing to get mother to pick something up "I want that"
What is the difference between folk physics and folk psychology? Folk physics: autism kids are good at & is understanding of causes of actions in the non-social world such as A's effect on B while folk psychology is what autistc kids are bad at & is the understanding of causes of actions (behaviours in social world.
What two things to babies begin to so around 1 year old? They engage in social referencing and they begin to point and follow gaze
What is Protodeclarative pointing? Pointing with no apparent desire for an object "thats interesting"
Which type of pointing relates to ToM? Why? Protodeclarative because often when they do it they point to the object and seem interested and then they will look at the adult to check if they are looking/attending to what your pointing at so may understand peoples mental state of attention.
What can we say about Protodeclarative pointing? That some people think that it shows babies have understanding of peoples attention but that Ted thinks it might just be that babies like the interaction between baby and parent when baby points and smiles and parent smiles back.
So people think that social referencing shows baby has understanding of _______ and that declarative pointing means babies have understanding of __________ but Ted is not so sure fear, attention
What happens at 12-18 months in terms of attention? Child starts to engage in joint attention – so starts to understand and engage with the attention of others, ability to share attention
At what point to people think that babies understand peoples mental state of attention? When they use Protodeclarative pointing and people thing that its because they point to object and check to see if parent is attending/looking to what your pointing at so understand your mental state of attention
What is the difference between joint attention and the assumed attention used in Protodeclarative pointing? Joint attention doesn't have to involve pointing, can just involve looking at the same object.
So how do babies show joint attention and at what age do they show this? At 12 – 18 months even if you dont point, if you simply look at something the baby will also look and vice versa – the baby will look at something in an attempt to get you to look at it – will check to see if you are looking at it
Joint pointing is kind of like Protodeclarative pointing but doesn't involve…? pointing
Protodeclarative pointing and joint attention done by babies is suggested that it shows babies understanding of peoples attention. BUT what does Ted think? Hes unclear on this as both involve social interaction where baby looks, you look, baby smiles and you smile, so engaging in a social game not necessarily understanding attention
Around __ to ___ months babies start to recognise themselves in the mirror. What is this called? 16 to 24, Self Recognition
Describe what happens in the self recognition task. Put not on chillds nose or cheek and put them in front of mirror than cover dot up with makeup and put in mirror again and if they touch their nose/cheek then they have self recognition, they understand that they are separate, different to other people
How does having self recognition (shown in the task using _______) relate to ToM? (BUT REMEMBER IT IS STILL NOT CLEAR) mirror, because ToM=you can assess your own mental states & can understand others mental states, so if child recognises themselves in mirror,they understand theyre dif. to other –> better position of understanding other might have dif. desires & beliefs
What else happens at 18-24 months other than joint attention and self-recognition? Empathy – children begin to actively assist others who are upset – true signs of empathy
With empathy, if child only felt sad then could simply be ______ _______, if child only tried to stop crying the could simply be _________ ______, if child does both suggests child bases intervention on an understanding of of own experiences of ________? emotional contagion, learned response, distress
With empathy if the child does both (felt sad and tried to stop other child from crying) then the child is not merely trying to stop the other from crying, but trying to stop other from ______ _______. feeling sad
If the baby tries to stop the other baby from crying, maybe the baby doesn't actually understand the other babies mental state, maybe he only puts his sucky think into the other babies mouth because….? he is trying to stop baby from crying because he finds it aversive
So if the baby does both emotion contagion and trues to help the child/stop child crying the might mean baby has real insight into another persons _________ ________? mental states
The study where experimenter cries when his teddy bears arm falls off is testing what? And what were the results? How common Empathy (distress and help) is and correlation between empathy and self-recognition. That more common for kids to develop empathy and empathy (distressed and help) was correlated with self recognition development
At __-__ months babies seem to show joint attention, self-recognition and empathy 18-24 months
With there being a correlation between empathy development and self-recognition, why might this be? Because as baby can distinguish between themselves and others then they are in a position to recognise that other people have other mental states different from there own – say the other person is sad and then be empathetic
What age to children start to understand desires? Between 1.5 and 3 years
What 3 things seem to show children have understanding of desire between 1.5 and 3 years old? State which age each one shows up? Around 18 months children can do broccoli/crackers task so maybe shows understanding of desire, at 2-3 years old did desire happiness link correctly and 2-3 year olds children show understanding for Desire-Link action
What task is this? And what were the results (what age can kids do this correctly? When person 1 wanted a rabbit and got a rabbit and person 2 wanted a dog but gets a rabbit, how does each person feel? The Desire-Happiness Link and older 2 year olds (or 3 year olds) can do this – recognise this desire-emotion link
Between 18 and 24 months what three things to children seem to show in regards to ToM? Joint recognition, self-recognition and empathy
What task is this? And what age can kids do it correctly? "Ask children if sam finds rabbit at A (under porch) does he go to school or continue searching? and ask them if sam doesnt find rabbit at A does he go to school or keep searching? Desire-action task and older 2 year olds (or 3 year olds) can do this – can recognise that desires shape actions
So maybe by_ but definitely by _ kids understand something about desire 2,3
What task shows us that at 3 years old children can recognise real(physical) and mental differences Boy 1 has a cookie, boy 2 is thinking about a cookie. Ask child "Which cookie can be seen, touched and eaten?" Results: 3 years olds got task right so can recognise real(physical) and mental differences
So at 3 years of age are on their way to having a ToM as they can understand something about desires and the difference between real(physical) and mental states. But remember Ted said to main mental states we use are desires & ___ (we havnt looked at yet) belief
We like because we are trying to create a mistaken ______ in another person belief
When people look at beliefs they dont look at beliefs that are true they look at beliefs that are __________. And so they use the ______ ______ task mistaken, false belief task
At __ years old child will say that person will look on table for tissue because they know its there (egocentric) while at _ years old child will say person will look in box so are not ________. 3, 4, egocentric, so 4 year olds understand that beliefs dont match the real world – so understand that person has belief about the world NOT just that person acts according to the world
Describe the desire – happiness task and what age kids can do it When person 1 wanted a rabbit and got a rabbit and person 2 wanted a dog but gets a rabbit, how does each person feel? Older 2 year old kids (or 3 year olds) recognise this desire-emotion link
What i wrong with using a true belief task to work out when children understand other peoples beliefs? Because we dont know if they are describing their own beliefs (being egocentric) which just happen to also be the beliefs of the person or whether the child actually understands what the other persons belief would be.
The question is: what are children doing when they are lying? Are they trying to create a _____ _____ in someone else or are they just trying to get out of ________? false belief, trouble
Lying is or isn't a skill we are born with? isn't
Boy eats chocolate cake and tells mum his brother did it. How does this show he doesn't have ToM yet? Because he thinks mum knows as little or as much as he knows – doenst realise mum knows that brother is at school
Describe the desire-action task and what age kids can do it Ask children if sam finds rabbit at A (under porch) does he go to school or continue searching? and ask them if sam doesnt find rabbit at A does he go to school or keep searching? Older 2 year olds (or 3 year old) recognise that desires shape action
Theory of Mind develops from ______ through ___________. A major milestone occurs around __ years birth, adulthood, 4
What is the difference in ToM between 2 year olds and 4 years olds (what is the major milestone that happens at 4 years) Children at 2 years understand that people act according to their desires while at 4 years children understand that people act according to their beliefs AND desires
So at 4 and 5 child now understands the distinction between "mind" (what someone thinks (b__________) and "world" (what actually is the case) believes
There are two control/memory questions asked with the false belief task, what are they and how do they help? 1. Where did maxi put the chocolate in the beginning and 2. where is the chocolate now. If they pass it ensures they understand the story and if they fail the test question and pass the control question must be due to deficit in mental state understanding
If child fails test question for false belief task but passes test questions this means child has deficit in _____ ______ understanding NOT a ________ or ___________ deficit mental state, learning memory
There are three difference False Belief/ToM tasks. What are they? Unexpected Transfer task, Unexpected sat_flash_1s task and Appearance-Reality task
Describe the Unexpected Transfer task Maxi puts chocolate in blue cupboard and goes outside to play, mother moves chocolate to green cupboard. Where will maxi look for chocolate? 3 years olds say blue and 4 year olds say green because they understand the mind can misrepresent the world
Describe the Unexpected sat_flash_1 task Show child smarties box and then show them unexpected sat_flash_1 of candles inside and ask them what they though was in the box. 3 year olds say candles but 4 year olds say smarties. – they understand the mind can misrepresent the world
Describe the Appearance -Reality task Ask child what in playdough box,then show them. Ask what mum will think in the playdough box. 3 yr olds say playdough & 4 yr olds say orange-they understand something can be thought of (misrepresented/represented) in two different ways
What did researchers who find from studies of 1200 children about relationship between false belief and gender? That girls tend to have advantage in false belief but only slightly and could be mediated by their mental state talk by people around them
What do you think of when you hear about Baka tribe? The study done to see whether false belief (belief-desire in particular) is universal, is the same across cultures.
Describe the study done to see whether false belief is universal, the same across cultures Baka tribe – food that mother was going to use for tea is hid in hiding place. Children asked to predict where mother will look and how they will react. Children with mean age of 5 predicted correctly that mother look in contained and be sad
What study CONFIRMS that understanding about false belief occurs at 4 years of age? The meta-analysis done fo all False Belief studie where different types of "false belief" tasks all come in about 4 years
All early ToM development helps _________ __________ such as gaze monitoring, desire understanding, empathy social interaction
Children who develop better ToM (pass false belief tasks earlier) are rated as ________ competent, are more s____, more connected _______, more sophisticated _____ ____, more m____ and better "t________ with peers. socially, social, communication, pretent play, moral "teachers"
What are the two downsides to children having better ToM (develop it earlier) They are more sensitive to teachers criticism -after puppet teacher criticised work kids with better ToM felt worse and graded work worse. Children with better ToM do sophisticated bullying – use ToM to torment others psychologically
When it comes to gender differences in false belief they are minor. When it comes to recognising emotions though __________ have a significant advantage than males females
What is this? . View milk with filter which makes it look pink and ask them what colour milk really is. Is included as someone who doesn’t know there’s a filter there will think its pink. Appearance reality task of false belief tasks
How do we know that better ToM is still linked with social competence in pre-adolescence? (What task shows this?) The Strange Stories task given to older children/adults where story endings are ambiguous (can be understood in two different ways)
What two tasks show that ToM continues throughout life to adulthood? The strange stories task (Happe) and the Baron-Cohen Eyes task
does implicit knowledge generally come before or after explicit knowledge? before
What is an indication of implicit knowledge? anticipatory eye gaze
When asked test questions child looks in the correct location but when asked it verbally…? they give the incorrect response/answer
What is this an example of "I wonder where Sam will look for the cheese?" Implicit prompt
What is this an example of "Where will Sam look for the cheese?" Explicit prompt
With the implicit and explicit prompt task what were the results? (whats occurring prior to 4) Children as young as 2 years and 11 months will look to the correct location but give an incorrect verbal response to a direct question.

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