Term Definition
mass the amount of matter in an object
weight how strongly gravity pulls on an object
volume measures how much space matter takes up
matter is anything weight mass and volume
surface tension when particles pull towards other particles and create a skin
states of matter solid, liquid, or gas
density the amount of mass in an object
buoyancy the resistance to sinking
element a material that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical reactions
metal elements that share common properties such as shiny luster, conductivity, and flexibility
atom the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element
nucleus the center of an atom
proton is a particle with one unit of positive electric charge
neutron is a particle that does not have a charge it is NEUTRAL!!!!
electron smallerparticles whith one unit of negative charge each
molecule particle with more than one atom joined together
atomic mass the number you get when you add the protons and neutrons
noble gas the six elements on the far right side of the periodic table
malleability the ability to be bent, flattenened, or hammered without being broken
ductility the ability to be pulled into a wire without breaking
corrosion when metals combine with non-metals from the enviroment
semiconducter a material that conducts electriciy better than non-metals, but not as good as metals
physical change alters the form of an objet without changing what type of matter it is
sublimation the process of changing directly for a solid into a gas without first becoming a liquid
melting point the particular temperature at which a substance changes state from a solid into a liquid
boiling point the temperature at which a substance changes state from a liquid gas
freezing point the temperature at which a substance changes state from a liquid to a solid
thermal expansion the expansion of matter cuased by a change in heat
thermal contraction the contraction of matter cuased by a change in heat
mixture a physcial combination of two or more substance that are blended together without forming new substances
colloid a type of mixture in whcih the particles of one material are scattered through another and block the passage of liht without settling out
solution a mixture of substances that are blended so completely that the mixture looks the same everywhere
solute a substance that is dissolved by another substance that can be dissolved by another substance
heterogeneous mixtures that have different parts that you can plainly see
suspension heterogeneous mixtures where the speckled or chuckyness can be seen under a microscope clearly
chromotography process where liquid travels up special chromotography paper and carries small substance with it. The substances in the liqueid travel at different speeds and bands of color appear on the paper as the substance separate.
solvent a substance that isdissolved by another substance to form a solution
alloy a solution of a metal and at least one other solid whih is often also a metal
solubility the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved by another substance
distillation the process of separating the parts of a mixure by evaporation and condensation
compound a substance that is formed b the checial comination of two or more elements
chemical change a change of matter that occurs when atoms link together in a new way, creating a new substance different from the original substances
reactant an original substance at the beginning of a chemical reaction
product a substance at the end of a chemical reaction
precipitate a solid formed by the chemical reaction of some solutions
pH Scale potential for Hydrogen. low pH strong acids, high pH strong bases 1-14 (pH of 7 nuetral)
acid a substance that tastes sour and makes blue litmus paper turn red
ions an electrically charged atom or molecule with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
base a substance that tastes bitter makes red litmus paper turn blue
acidity the strength of an acid
alkalinity the strength of a base
neutralization the chemical change of an acid and a base into water and a salt
electrolytes a substance that conducts electricity and that forms ions when dissolved
position the location of an object
motion a change in an object's position over time
frame of reference a group of objects from which a position or a motion is measured
speed how fast an ovject's position changes with time at any given moment
velocity the speed and the direction of a moving object
acceleration a change in velocity with respect to time
momentum the mass of an object multiplied by it velocity
force any push or pull by one object on another
friction a force that opposes the motion of one object moving past another
balanced force forces that act together on an object without changing its motion
unbalanced force forces that do not cancel each other out and that cuase an object to change its motion
action force the initial push or pull on one object on another object
reaction force the push or pull of a second object back on the object that started the push or pull
Newton's 1st Law An object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an objec in constand motion tends to stay in motion, unless acted upon by an unblanced force
Newton's 2nd Law The unbalanced force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration: F= m x a
Newton's 3rd Law all forces occur in pairs, and theese two forces are equal in strength and opposite in direction
lift air force that raise the plane
thrust push or pull of the plane forward
drag pull of the plane that slows it down
inertia the tendency of a moving object to keep moving in a straight line or of any object to resist a change in motion
work the use of force tomove an objec a certain ddistance or change an object
engergy the ability to perfom work or change an object
potential energy energ stored in the postion or the structure of an object
kinetic energy the energy of a moving object
law of conservation of energy the thery that states that energy may change form, but it cannot be created or destroyed
simple machine a machine that changes the direction the distance, or the strength of one force
effort the force applied to a machine
load the object being moved by a machine
fulcrum the pivot point of a lever
compound machine a combination of two or more simple machines
efficiency the measure of how much useful work a machine puts out compared to the amount of work put into it
speed how fast an object's potsiton changes with time at any given momement (miles/hr)
velocity the speed and the direction of a moving object (mile/hr)
acceleration a change in velocity with respect to time (miles/hr2)
momentum mass x velocity (meter/sec)
work the use of force to move an object a certain distance or change an object
kinds of energy potential and kinetic

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